Abstract

A compact clinically compatible fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) system was designed and built for intraoperative disease diagnosis and validated in vivo in a hamster oral carcinogenesis model. This apparatus allows for the remote image collection via a flexible imaging probe consisting of a gradient index objective lens and a fiber bundle. Tissue autofluorescence (337 nm excitation) was imaged using an intensified CCD with a gate width down to 0.2 ns. We demonstrate a significant contrast in fluorescence lifetime between tumor (1.77±0.26  ns) and normal (2.50±0.36  ns) tissues at 450 nm and an over 80% intensity decrease at 390 nm emission in tumor versus normal areas. The time-resolved images were minimally affected by tissue morphology, endogenous absorbers, and illumination. These results demonstrate the potential of FLIM as an intraoperative diagnostic technique.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. Richards-Kortum and E. Sevick-Muraca, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 47, 555 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. R. Lakowicz, Principle of Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Springer, 2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3, 795 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. I. Pavlova, M. Williams, A. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. Gillenwater, Clin. Cancer Res. 14, 2396 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. V. Butte, B. K. Pikul, A. Hever, W. H. Yong, K. L. Black, and L. Marcu, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064026 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. I. Munro, J. McGinty, N. Galletly, J. Requejo-Isidro, P. M. P. Lanigan, D. S. Elson, C. Dunsby, M. A. A. Neil, M. J. Lever, G. W. H. Stamp, and P. M. W. French, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051403 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. C. Skala, K. M. Riching, D. K. Bird, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, J. Eickhoff, K. W. Eliceiri, P. J. Keely, and N. Ramanujam, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024014 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Mizeret, T. Stepinac, M. Hansroul, A. Studzinski, H. van den Bergh, and G. Wagnieres, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 4689 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. S. Elson, J. A. Jo, and L. Marcu, New J. Phys. 9, 127 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Sun, R. Liu, D. S. Elson, C. W. Hollars, J. A. Jo, J. Park, Y. Sun, and L. Marcu, Opt. Lett. 33, 630 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. T. Chen, H. K. Chiang, S. N. Chow, C. Y. Wang, Y. S. Lee, J. C. Tsai, and C. P. Chiang, J. Oral Pathol. Med. 27, 470 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

I. Pavlova, M. Williams, A. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. Gillenwater, Clin. Cancer Res. 14, 2396 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sun, R. Liu, D. S. Elson, C. W. Hollars, J. A. Jo, J. Park, Y. Sun, and L. Marcu, Opt. Lett. 33, 630 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

M. C. Skala, K. M. Riching, D. K. Bird, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, J. Eickhoff, K. W. Eliceiri, P. J. Keely, and N. Ramanujam, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024014 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Elson, J. A. Jo, and L. Marcu, New J. Phys. 9, 127 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

P. V. Butte, B. K. Pikul, A. Hever, W. H. Yong, K. L. Black, and L. Marcu, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064026 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Munro, J. McGinty, N. Galletly, J. Requejo-Isidro, P. M. P. Lanigan, D. S. Elson, C. Dunsby, M. A. A. Neil, M. J. Lever, G. W. H. Stamp, and P. M. W. French, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3, 795 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. Mizeret, T. Stepinac, M. Hansroul, A. Studzinski, H. van den Bergh, and G. Wagnieres, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 4689 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

C. T. Chen, H. K. Chiang, S. N. Chow, C. Y. Wang, Y. S. Lee, J. C. Tsai, and C. P. Chiang, J. Oral Pathol. Med. 27, 470 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

R. Richards-Kortum and E. Sevick-Muraca, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 47, 555 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benninger, R.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3, 795 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bird, D. K.

M. C. Skala, K. M. Riching, D. K. Bird, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, J. Eickhoff, K. W. Eliceiri, P. J. Keely, and N. Ramanujam, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024014 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Black, K. L.

P. V. Butte, B. K. Pikul, A. Hever, W. H. Yong, K. L. Black, and L. Marcu, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064026 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Butte, P. V.

P. V. Butte, B. K. Pikul, A. Hever, W. H. Yong, K. L. Black, and L. Marcu, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064026 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. T.

C. T. Chen, H. K. Chiang, S. N. Chow, C. Y. Wang, Y. S. Lee, J. C. Tsai, and C. P. Chiang, J. Oral Pathol. Med. 27, 470 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiang, C. P.

C. T. Chen, H. K. Chiang, S. N. Chow, C. Y. Wang, Y. S. Lee, J. C. Tsai, and C. P. Chiang, J. Oral Pathol. Med. 27, 470 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiang, H. K.

C. T. Chen, H. K. Chiang, S. N. Chow, C. Y. Wang, Y. S. Lee, J. C. Tsai, and C. P. Chiang, J. Oral Pathol. Med. 27, 470 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chow, S. N.

C. T. Chen, H. K. Chiang, S. N. Chow, C. Y. Wang, Y. S. Lee, J. C. Tsai, and C. P. Chiang, J. Oral Pathol. Med. 27, 470 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, D.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3, 795 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunsby, C.

I. Munro, J. McGinty, N. Galletly, J. Requejo-Isidro, P. M. P. Lanigan, D. S. Elson, C. Dunsby, M. A. A. Neil, M. J. Lever, G. W. H. Stamp, and P. M. W. French, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eickhoff, J.

M. C. Skala, K. M. Riching, D. K. Bird, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, J. Eickhoff, K. W. Eliceiri, P. J. Keely, and N. Ramanujam, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024014 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eliceiri, K. W.

M. C. Skala, K. M. Riching, D. K. Bird, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, J. Eickhoff, K. W. Eliceiri, P. J. Keely, and N. Ramanujam, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024014 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Naggar, A.

I. Pavlova, M. Williams, A. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. Gillenwater, Clin. Cancer Res. 14, 2396 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elson, D.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3, 795 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elson, D. S.

Y. Sun, R. Liu, D. S. Elson, C. W. Hollars, J. A. Jo, J. Park, Y. Sun, and L. Marcu, Opt. Lett. 33, 630 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Elson, J. A. Jo, and L. Marcu, New J. Phys. 9, 127 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Munro, J. McGinty, N. Galletly, J. Requejo-Isidro, P. M. P. Lanigan, D. S. Elson, C. Dunsby, M. A. A. Neil, M. J. Lever, G. W. H. Stamp, and P. M. W. French, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

French, P.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3, 795 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

French, P. M. W.

I. Munro, J. McGinty, N. Galletly, J. Requejo-Isidro, P. M. P. Lanigan, D. S. Elson, C. Dunsby, M. A. A. Neil, M. J. Lever, G. W. H. Stamp, and P. M. W. French, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galletly, N.

I. Munro, J. McGinty, N. Galletly, J. Requejo-Isidro, P. M. P. Lanigan, D. S. Elson, C. Dunsby, M. A. A. Neil, M. J. Lever, G. W. H. Stamp, and P. M. W. French, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gendron-Fitzpatrick, A.

M. C. Skala, K. M. Riching, D. K. Bird, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, J. Eickhoff, K. W. Eliceiri, P. J. Keely, and N. Ramanujam, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024014 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillenwater, A.

I. Pavlova, M. Williams, A. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. Gillenwater, Clin. Cancer Res. 14, 2396 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansroul, M.

J. Mizeret, T. Stepinac, M. Hansroul, A. Studzinski, H. van den Bergh, and G. Wagnieres, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 4689 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hever, A.

P. V. Butte, B. K. Pikul, A. Hever, W. H. Yong, K. L. Black, and L. Marcu, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064026 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hollars, C. W.

Jo, J. A.

Keely, P. J.

M. C. Skala, K. M. Riching, D. K. Bird, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, J. Eickhoff, K. W. Eliceiri, P. J. Keely, and N. Ramanujam, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024014 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lakowicz, J. R.

J. R. Lakowicz, Principle of Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Springer, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Lanigan, P.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3, 795 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lanigan, P. M. P.

I. Munro, J. McGinty, N. Galletly, J. Requejo-Isidro, P. M. P. Lanigan, D. S. Elson, C. Dunsby, M. A. A. Neil, M. J. Lever, G. W. H. Stamp, and P. M. W. French, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. S.

C. T. Chen, H. K. Chiang, S. N. Chow, C. Y. Wang, Y. S. Lee, J. C. Tsai, and C. P. Chiang, J. Oral Pathol. Med. 27, 470 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lever, J.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3, 795 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lever, M. J.

I. Munro, J. McGinty, N. Galletly, J. Requejo-Isidro, P. M. P. Lanigan, D. S. Elson, C. Dunsby, M. A. A. Neil, M. J. Lever, G. W. H. Stamp, and P. M. W. French, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, R.

Marcu, L.

Y. Sun, R. Liu, D. S. Elson, C. W. Hollars, J. A. Jo, J. Park, Y. Sun, and L. Marcu, Opt. Lett. 33, 630 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Elson, J. A. Jo, and L. Marcu, New J. Phys. 9, 127 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. V. Butte, B. K. Pikul, A. Hever, W. H. Yong, K. L. Black, and L. Marcu, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064026 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McGinty, J.

I. Munro, J. McGinty, N. Galletly, J. Requejo-Isidro, P. M. P. Lanigan, D. S. Elson, C. Dunsby, M. A. A. Neil, M. J. Lever, G. W. H. Stamp, and P. M. W. French, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3, 795 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mizeret, J.

J. Mizeret, T. Stepinac, M. Hansroul, A. Studzinski, H. van den Bergh, and G. Wagnieres, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 4689 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Munro, I.

I. Munro, J. McGinty, N. Galletly, J. Requejo-Isidro, P. M. P. Lanigan, D. S. Elson, C. Dunsby, M. A. A. Neil, M. J. Lever, G. W. H. Stamp, and P. M. W. French, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3, 795 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neil, M.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3, 795 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neil, M. A. A.

I. Munro, J. McGinty, N. Galletly, J. Requejo-Isidro, P. M. P. Lanigan, D. S. Elson, C. Dunsby, M. A. A. Neil, M. J. Lever, G. W. H. Stamp, and P. M. W. French, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J.

Pavlova, I.

I. Pavlova, M. Williams, A. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. Gillenwater, Clin. Cancer Res. 14, 2396 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phillips, D.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3, 795 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pikul, B. K.

P. V. Butte, B. K. Pikul, A. Hever, W. H. Yong, K. L. Black, and L. Marcu, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064026 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ramanujam, N.

M. C. Skala, K. M. Riching, D. K. Bird, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, J. Eickhoff, K. W. Eliceiri, P. J. Keely, and N. Ramanujam, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024014 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reavell, F.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3, 795 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Requejo-Isidro, J.

I. Munro, J. McGinty, N. Galletly, J. Requejo-Isidro, P. M. P. Lanigan, D. S. Elson, C. Dunsby, M. A. A. Neil, M. J. Lever, G. W. H. Stamp, and P. M. W. French, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3, 795 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

I. Pavlova, M. Williams, A. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. Gillenwater, Clin. Cancer Res. 14, 2396 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Richards-Kortum and E. Sevick-Muraca, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 47, 555 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riching, K. M.

M. C. Skala, K. M. Riching, D. K. Bird, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, J. Eickhoff, K. W. Eliceiri, P. J. Keely, and N. Ramanujam, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024014 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandison, A.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3, 795 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sevick-Muraca, E.

R. Richards-Kortum and E. Sevick-Muraca, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 47, 555 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegel, J.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3, 795 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skala, M. C.

M. C. Skala, K. M. Riching, D. K. Bird, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, J. Eickhoff, K. W. Eliceiri, P. J. Keely, and N. Ramanujam, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024014 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stamp, G.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3, 795 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stamp, G. W. H.

I. Munro, J. McGinty, N. Galletly, J. Requejo-Isidro, P. M. P. Lanigan, D. S. Elson, C. Dunsby, M. A. A. Neil, M. J. Lever, G. W. H. Stamp, and P. M. W. French, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stepinac, T.

J. Mizeret, T. Stepinac, M. Hansroul, A. Studzinski, H. van den Bergh, and G. Wagnieres, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 4689 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Studzinski, A.

J. Mizeret, T. Stepinac, M. Hansroul, A. Studzinski, H. van den Bergh, and G. Wagnieres, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 4689 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Suhling, K.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3, 795 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Y.

Tadrous, P.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3, 795 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Talbot, C.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3, 795 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Treanor, B.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3, 795 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, J. C.

C. T. Chen, H. K. Chiang, S. N. Chow, C. Y. Wang, Y. S. Lee, J. C. Tsai, and C. P. Chiang, J. Oral Pathol. Med. 27, 470 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van den Bergh, H.

J. Mizeret, T. Stepinac, M. Hansroul, A. Studzinski, H. van den Bergh, and G. Wagnieres, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 4689 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wagnieres, G.

J. Mizeret, T. Stepinac, M. Hansroul, A. Studzinski, H. van den Bergh, and G. Wagnieres, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 4689 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, A.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3, 795 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C. Y.

C. T. Chen, H. K. Chiang, S. N. Chow, C. Y. Wang, Y. S. Lee, J. C. Tsai, and C. P. Chiang, J. Oral Pathol. Med. 27, 470 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, S.

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3, 795 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, M.

I. Pavlova, M. Williams, A. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. Gillenwater, Clin. Cancer Res. 14, 2396 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yong, W. H.

P. V. Butte, B. K. Pikul, A. Hever, W. H. Yong, K. L. Black, and L. Marcu, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064026 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

R. Richards-Kortum and E. Sevick-Muraca, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 47, 555 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Cancer Res. (1)

I. Pavlova, M. Williams, A. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. Gillenwater, Clin. Cancer Res. 14, 2396 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

P. V. Butte, B. K. Pikul, A. Hever, W. H. Yong, K. L. Black, and L. Marcu, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064026 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Munro, J. McGinty, N. Galletly, J. Requejo-Isidro, P. M. P. Lanigan, D. S. Elson, C. Dunsby, M. A. A. Neil, M. J. Lever, G. W. H. Stamp, and P. M. W. French, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 051403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Skala, K. M. Riching, D. K. Bird, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, J. Eickhoff, K. W. Eliceiri, P. J. Keely, and N. Ramanujam, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 024014 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Oral Pathol. Med. (1)

C. T. Chen, H. K. Chiang, S. N. Chow, C. Y. Wang, Y. S. Lee, J. C. Tsai, and C. P. Chiang, J. Oral Pathol. Med. 27, 470 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

D. S. Elson, J. A. Jo, and L. Marcu, New J. Phys. 9, 127 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. (1)

D. Elson, J. Requejo-Isidro, I. Munro, F. Reavell, J. Siegel, K. Suhling, P. Tadrous, R. Benninger, P. Lanigan, J. McGinty, C. Talbot, B. Treanor, S. Webb, A. Sandison, A. Wallace, D. Davis, J. Lever, M. Neil, D. Phillips, G. Stamp, and P. French, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 3, 795 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

J. Mizeret, T. Stepinac, M. Hansroul, A. Studzinski, H. van den Bergh, and G. Wagnieres, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 4689 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. R. Lakowicz, Principle of Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Springer, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Compact FLIM system using a gated ICCD, a 700 ps pulsed laser, and a flexible fiber endoscope for tissue diagnosis in vivo.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Evaluation of the FLIM apparatus on standard fluorophores with overlapping emission spectra but different lifetimes: (a) intensity image, (b) lifetime image, and (c) lifetime histogram. In (c) the small peak (SFL) between C-1 and C-120 is the scattered fluorescence light within the capillary sidewalls.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fluorescence images of hamster cheek in vivo. Normal buccal pouch mucosa: (a) intensity image, (b) lifetime image, and (e) lifetime histogram. Carcinoma in situ with surrounding tissue: (c) intensity image, (d) lifetime map, and its histogram (f). (g) A color picture under white light. (h) Intensity-weighted lifetime image from (c) and (d). Two histogram regions were selected referring to the bright field and fluorescence intensity images. Each region covered about 60%–80% central area for both tumor and normal.

Metrics