Abstract

We show tuning of the resonance wavelength of silicon-on-insulator microring resonators with liquid crystal cladding. The electro-optic effect of the liquid crystal causes a decrease in effective refractive index for the TE-polarized light in the waveguides. Tuning of the liquid crystal birefringence affects primarily the longitudinal component of the electric field. We achieve a tuning range of 0.6 nm. Through simulation and experiment we perform a thorough study of this phenomenon.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luysaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. Maune, R. Lawson, C. Gunn, A. Scherer, and L. Dalton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4689 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. G. Chigrinov, L. Zhou, A. A. Muravsky, and A. W. O. Poon, “Electrically tunable microresonators using photoaligned liquid crystals,” U.S. patent pending (filed April 24, 2007).
  4. A. Falco and G. Assanto, Opt. Commun. 279, 210 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Desmet, K. Neyts, and R. Baets, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 123517 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett. 29, 2749 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. James, E. Willman, F. A. Fernández, and S. E. Day, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 53, 1575 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals (Oxford U. Press, 1995).
  9. J. Beeckman, R. James, F. A. Fernández, W. De Cort, P. J. M. Vanbrabant, and K. Neyts, “Calculation of fully anisotropic liquid crystal waveguide modes,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

2007 (1)

A. Falco and G. Assanto, Opt. Commun. 279, 210 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

R. James, E. Willman, F. A. Fernández, and S. E. Day, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 53, 1575 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

H. Desmet, K. Neyts, and R. Baets, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 123517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luysaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett. 29, 2749 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

B. Maune, R. Lawson, C. Gunn, A. Scherer, and L. Dalton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4689 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Assanto, G.

A. Falco and G. Assanto, Opt. Commun. 279, 210 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

H. Desmet, K. Neyts, and R. Baets, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 123517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luysaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett. 29, 2749 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beckx, S.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luysaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beeckman, J.

J. Beeckman, R. James, F. A. Fernández, W. De Cort, P. J. M. Vanbrabant, and K. Neyts, “Calculation of fully anisotropic liquid crystal waveguide modes,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Bienstman, P.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luysaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett. 29, 2749 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bogaerts, W.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luysaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chigrinov, V. G.

V. G. Chigrinov, L. Zhou, A. A. Muravsky, and A. W. O. Poon, “Electrically tunable microresonators using photoaligned liquid crystals,” U.S. patent pending (filed April 24, 2007).

Dalton, L.

B. Maune, R. Lawson, C. Gunn, A. Scherer, and L. Dalton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4689 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Day, S. E.

R. James, E. Willman, F. A. Fernández, and S. E. Day, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 53, 1575 (2006).
[CrossRef]

De Cort, W.

J. Beeckman, R. James, F. A. Fernández, W. De Cort, P. J. M. Vanbrabant, and K. Neyts, “Calculation of fully anisotropic liquid crystal waveguide modes,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

de Gennes, P. G.

P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals (Oxford U. Press, 1995).

Desmet, H.

H. Desmet, K. Neyts, and R. Baets, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 123517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luysaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Falco, A.

A. Falco and G. Assanto, Opt. Commun. 279, 210 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fernández, F. A.

R. James, E. Willman, F. A. Fernández, and S. E. Day, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 53, 1575 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Beeckman, R. James, F. A. Fernández, W. De Cort, P. J. M. Vanbrabant, and K. Neyts, “Calculation of fully anisotropic liquid crystal waveguide modes,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Gunn, C.

B. Maune, R. Lawson, C. Gunn, A. Scherer, and L. Dalton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4689 (2003).
[CrossRef]

James, R.

R. James, E. Willman, F. A. Fernández, and S. E. Day, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 53, 1575 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Beeckman, R. James, F. A. Fernández, W. De Cort, P. J. M. Vanbrabant, and K. Neyts, “Calculation of fully anisotropic liquid crystal waveguide modes,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Lawson, R.

B. Maune, R. Lawson, C. Gunn, A. Scherer, and L. Dalton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4689 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Luysaert, B.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luysaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maune, B.

B. Maune, R. Lawson, C. Gunn, A. Scherer, and L. Dalton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4689 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Muravsky, A. A.

V. G. Chigrinov, L. Zhou, A. A. Muravsky, and A. W. O. Poon, “Electrically tunable microresonators using photoaligned liquid crystals,” U.S. patent pending (filed April 24, 2007).

Neyts, K.

H. Desmet, K. Neyts, and R. Baets, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 123517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Beeckman, R. James, F. A. Fernández, W. De Cort, P. J. M. Vanbrabant, and K. Neyts, “Calculation of fully anisotropic liquid crystal waveguide modes,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Poon, A. W. O.

V. G. Chigrinov, L. Zhou, A. A. Muravsky, and A. W. O. Poon, “Electrically tunable microresonators using photoaligned liquid crystals,” U.S. patent pending (filed April 24, 2007).

Prost, J.

P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals (Oxford U. Press, 1995).

Scherer, A.

B. Maune, R. Lawson, C. Gunn, A. Scherer, and L. Dalton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4689 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Taillaert, D.

D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett. 29, 2749 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luysaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Van Campenhout, J.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luysaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Van Thourhout, D.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luysaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vanbrabant, P. J. M.

J. Beeckman, R. James, F. A. Fernández, W. De Cort, P. J. M. Vanbrabant, and K. Neyts, “Calculation of fully anisotropic liquid crystal waveguide modes,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Wiaux, V.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luysaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Willman, E.

R. James, E. Willman, F. A. Fernández, and S. E. Day, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 53, 1575 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wouters, J.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luysaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

V. G. Chigrinov, L. Zhou, A. A. Muravsky, and A. W. O. Poon, “Electrically tunable microresonators using photoaligned liquid crystals,” U.S. patent pending (filed April 24, 2007).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

B. Maune, R. Lawson, C. Gunn, A. Scherer, and L. Dalton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4689 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luysaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

R. James, E. Willman, F. A. Fernández, and S. E. Day, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 53, 1575 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Desmet, K. Neyts, and R. Baets, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 123517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Beeckman, R. James, F. A. Fernández, W. De Cort, P. J. M. Vanbrabant, and K. Neyts, “Calculation of fully anisotropic liquid crystal waveguide modes,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Falco and G. Assanto, Opt. Commun. 279, 210 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (2)

P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals (Oxford U. Press, 1995).

V. G. Chigrinov, L. Zhou, A. A. Muravsky, and A. W. O. Poon, “Electrically tunable microresonators using photoaligned liquid crystals,” U.S. patent pending (filed April 24, 2007).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic view of a device consisting of an SOI substrate with LC cladding, sealed off by a glass plate with conducting layer and alignment layer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Under a polarization microscope the surface appears dark except the regions where the grating is located. This indicates local changes in director orientation. The inset shows a schematic view of the structure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Under a polarization microscope the ring resonators (radius of 4 μ m ) can be clearly seen. The directions of polarizer (P), analyzer (A), and rubbing (R) are indicated on the right.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Resonance wavelength shift as a function of the applied voltage. The inset shows the output power as a function of the wavelength for 0 and 30 V.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Simulated shift of the resonance wavelength as a function of the applied voltage.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relative amplitude of the electric field components along the x coordinate on a line passing through the center of the waveguide. The inset on the left shows the intensity profile of the waveguide mode.

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