Abstract

We report a high-power picosecond fiber pump laser system for coherent Raman microscopy (CRM). The fiber laser system generates 3.5 ps pulses with 6 W average power at 1030 nm. Frequency doubling yields more than 2 W of green light, which can be used to pump an optical parametric oscillator to produce the pump and the Stokes beams for CRM. Detailed performance data on the laser and the various wavelength conversion steps are discussed, together with representative CRM images of fresh animal tissue obtained with the new source.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. J. Campagnola, M.-d. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, Biophys. J. 77, 3341 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 16807 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 1, 883 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. E. O. Potma and X. S. Xie, in Handbook of Biomedical Nonlinear Optical Microscopy, B.R.Masters and P.T. C.So, eds. (Oxford U. Press, 2008), p. 412.
  7. F. Ganikhanov, S. Carrasco, X. S. Xie, M. Katz, W. Seitz, and D. Kopf, Opt. Lett. 31, 1292 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. E. R. Andresen, C. K. Nielsen, J. Thøgersen, and S. R. Keiding, Opt. Express 15, 4848 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. E. Fermann, V. I. Kruglov, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 6010 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. P. Koplow, D. A. V. Kliner, and L. Goldberg, Opt. Lett. 25, 442 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (2)

C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 1, 883 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 16807 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

M. E. Fermann, V. I. Kruglov, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 6010 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Koplow, D. A. V. Kliner, and L. Goldberg, Opt. Lett. 25, 442 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

P. J. Campagnola, M.-d. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, Biophys. J. 77, 3341 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andresen, E. R.

Campagnola, P. J.

P. J. Campagnola, M.-d. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, Biophys. J. 77, 3341 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carrasco, S.

Côté, D.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 16807 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denk, W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dudley, J. M.

M. E. Fermann, V. I. Kruglov, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 6010 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, C. L.

C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 1, 883 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 16807 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fermann, M. E.

M. E. Fermann, V. I. Kruglov, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 6010 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freudiger, C. W.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ganikhanov, F.

Goldberg, L.

Harvey, J. D.

M. E. Fermann, V. I. Kruglov, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 6010 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, C.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holtom, G. R.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, J. X.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katz, M.

Keiding, S. R.

Kliner, D. A. V.

Kopf, D.

Koplow, J. P.

Kruglov, V. I.

M. E. Fermann, V. I. Kruglov, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 6010 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewis, A.

P. J. Campagnola, M.-d. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, Biophys. J. 77, 3341 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 16807 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loew, L. M.

P. J. Campagnola, M.-d. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, Biophys. J. 77, 3341 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, S.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Min, W.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nielsen, C. K.

Potma, E. O.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 16807 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. O. Potma and X. S. Xie, in Handbook of Biomedical Nonlinear Optical Microscopy, B.R.Masters and P.T. C.So, eds. (Oxford U. Press, 2008), p. 412.

Puoris'haag, M.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 16807 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saar, B. G.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seitz, W.

Strickler, J. H.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thøgersen, J.

Thomsen, B. C.

M. E. Fermann, V. I. Kruglov, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 6010 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, J. C.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, W. W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, M. -d.

P. J. Campagnola, M.-d. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, Biophys. J. 77, 3341 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, X. S.

C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 1, 883 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ganikhanov, S. Carrasco, X. S. Xie, M. Katz, W. Seitz, and D. Kopf, Opt. Lett. 31, 1292 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 16807 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. O. Potma and X. S. Xie, in Handbook of Biomedical Nonlinear Optical Microscopy, B.R.Masters and P.T. C.So, eds. (Oxford U. Press, 2008), p. 412.

Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (1)

C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 1, 883 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (1)

P. J. Campagnola, M.-d. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, Biophys. J. 77, 3341 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. E. Fermann, V. I. Kruglov, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 6010 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 16807 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, Science 322, 1857 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

E. O. Potma and X. S. Xie, in Handbook of Biomedical Nonlinear Optical Microscopy, B.R.Masters and P.T. C.So, eds. (Oxford U. Press, 2008), p. 412.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the picosecond laser system. Output power levels after each stage are indicated in gray boxes. Also shown is the LBO crystal used for SHG. WDM, wavelength division multiplexer; λ / 2 , λ / 4 , half- and quarter-wave plates, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Optical spectrum of the laser oscillator. (b) Intensity autocorrelation of the pulses from the oscillator. (c) Optical spectra of the pulses at the output of the amplifier at the indicated power levels.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Spectra of the pulses after frequency doubling. (b) Background-free autocorrelation of the green pulses at 1   W average power. (c) SHG power versus fundamental power.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Temperature tuning curve of the OPO (signal wavelength is measured and idler wavelength is calculated). (b) Background-free autocorrelation of the signal output near 900 nm. (c) Optical spectrum of the signal wave.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

CARS images: (a) CARS image at the CH 2 stretching frequency ( 2845 cm 1 ) showing the lipid distribution in the stratum corneum of wild-type mouse skin. (b) CARS image of the lipid distribution in the sebaceous gland 30 μ m deep in tissue. Scale: 20 μ m .

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