Abstract

We report the successful incorporation of Er3+ ions into SnO2 nanocrystals via a solvothermal method, with a resulting Er3+ concentration of the order of 1019cm3. Upon excitation above the SnO2 bandgap at 300 nm, intense and well-resolved Er3+-related photoluminescence (PL) at 1.55μm was observed at room temperature. The results of PL excitation and ultraviolet/visible diffuse reflectance spectra indicate that the excitation is a carrier-mediated process with an energy transfer from the SnO2 host to Er3+. For the above-gap excitation, only a single type of Er3+ luminescence center located at a centrosymmetric site was identified. The near-infrared luminescence dynamics and the weak PL thermal quenching of Er3+ were also revealed.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Polman, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Z. M. Jarzebski and J. P. Morton, J. Electrochem. Soc. 123, 333C (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Matsuoka, T. Tohda, and T. Nitta, J. Electrochem. Soc. 130, 417 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. A. Morais, S. J. L. Ribeiro, L. V. A. Scalvi, C. V. Santilli, L. O. Ruggiero, S. H. Pulcinelli, and Y. Messaddeq, J. Alloys Compd. 344, 217 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. N. Chiodini, A. Paleari, G. Brambilla, and E. R. Taylor, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4449 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Moon, S. T. Hwang, D. R. Jung, D. Son, C. Kim, J. Kim, M. Kang, and B. Park, J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 4164 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Coffa, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, A. Polman, and R. Serna, Phys. Rev. B 49, 16313 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. H. P. Christensen, D. R. Gabbe, and H. P. Jenssen, Phys. Rev. B 25, 1467 (1982).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (2)

J. Wu and J. L. Coffer, J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 16088 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Moon, S. T. Hwang, D. R. Jung, D. Son, C. Kim, J. Kim, M. Kang, and B. Park, J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 4164 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. Brovelli, A. Chiodini, A. Lauria, F. Meinardi, and A. Paleari, Phys. Rev. B 73, 073406 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

W. Y. Shen, M. L. Pang, J. Lin, and J. Fang, J. Electrochem. Soc. 152, H25 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, D.R.Lide, ed., 85th ed. (CRC, 2004), online version (retrieved June 8, 2009).

2003 (1)

J. W. Stouwdam, G. A. Hebbink, J. Huskens, and F. van Veggel, Chem. Mater. 15, 4604 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

N. Chiodini, A. Paleari, G. Brambilla, and E. R. Taylor, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4449 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Morais, S. J. L. Ribeiro, L. V. A. Scalvi, C. V. Santilli, L. O. Ruggiero, S. H. Pulcinelli, and Y. Messaddeq, J. Alloys Compd. 344, 217 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

R. S. Meltzer, S. P. Feofilov, B. Tissue, and H. B. Yuan, Phys. Rev. B 60, R14012 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

A. Polman, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

S. Coffa, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, A. Polman, and R. Serna, Phys. Rev. B 49, 16313 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

G. Cao, L. K. Rabenberg, C. M. Nunn, and T. E. Mallouk, Chem. Mater. 3, 149 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

T. Matsuoka, T. Tohda, and T. Nitta, J. Electrochem. Soc. 130, 417 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

H. P. Christensen, D. R. Gabbe, and H. P. Jenssen, Phys. Rev. B 25, 1467 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

Z. M. Jarzebski and J. P. Morton, J. Electrochem. Soc. 123, 333C (1976).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

M. J. Weber, Phys. Rev. 171, 283 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Brambilla, G.

N. Chiodini, A. Paleari, G. Brambilla, and E. R. Taylor, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4449 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brovelli, S.

S. Brovelli, A. Chiodini, A. Lauria, F. Meinardi, and A. Paleari, Phys. Rev. B 73, 073406 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cao, G.

G. Cao, L. K. Rabenberg, C. M. Nunn, and T. E. Mallouk, Chem. Mater. 3, 149 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chiodini, A.

S. Brovelli, A. Chiodini, A. Lauria, F. Meinardi, and A. Paleari, Phys. Rev. B 73, 073406 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chiodini, N.

N. Chiodini, A. Paleari, G. Brambilla, and E. R. Taylor, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4449 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Christensen, H. P.

H. P. Christensen, D. R. Gabbe, and H. P. Jenssen, Phys. Rev. B 25, 1467 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Coffa, S.

S. Coffa, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, A. Polman, and R. Serna, Phys. Rev. B 49, 16313 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Coffer, J. L.

J. Wu and J. L. Coffer, J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 16088 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fang, J.

W. Y. Shen, M. L. Pang, J. Lin, and J. Fang, J. Electrochem. Soc. 152, H25 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feofilov, S. P.

R. S. Meltzer, S. P. Feofilov, B. Tissue, and H. B. Yuan, Phys. Rev. B 60, R14012 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Franzo, G.

S. Coffa, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, A. Polman, and R. Serna, Phys. Rev. B 49, 16313 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gabbe, D. R.

H. P. Christensen, D. R. Gabbe, and H. P. Jenssen, Phys. Rev. B 25, 1467 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hebbink, G. A.

J. W. Stouwdam, G. A. Hebbink, J. Huskens, and F. van Veggel, Chem. Mater. 15, 4604 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huskens, J.

J. W. Stouwdam, G. A. Hebbink, J. Huskens, and F. van Veggel, Chem. Mater. 15, 4604 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, S. T.

T. Moon, S. T. Hwang, D. R. Jung, D. Son, C. Kim, J. Kim, M. Kang, and B. Park, J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 4164 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jarzebski, Z. M.

Z. M. Jarzebski and J. P. Morton, J. Electrochem. Soc. 123, 333C (1976).
[CrossRef]

Jenssen, H. P.

H. P. Christensen, D. R. Gabbe, and H. P. Jenssen, Phys. Rev. B 25, 1467 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Jung, D. R.

T. Moon, S. T. Hwang, D. R. Jung, D. Son, C. Kim, J. Kim, M. Kang, and B. Park, J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 4164 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kang, M.

T. Moon, S. T. Hwang, D. R. Jung, D. Son, C. Kim, J. Kim, M. Kang, and B. Park, J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 4164 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C.

T. Moon, S. T. Hwang, D. R. Jung, D. Son, C. Kim, J. Kim, M. Kang, and B. Park, J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 4164 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

T. Moon, S. T. Hwang, D. R. Jung, D. Son, C. Kim, J. Kim, M. Kang, and B. Park, J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 4164 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lauria, A.

S. Brovelli, A. Chiodini, A. Lauria, F. Meinardi, and A. Paleari, Phys. Rev. B 73, 073406 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J.

W. Y. Shen, M. L. Pang, J. Lin, and J. Fang, J. Electrochem. Soc. 152, H25 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mallouk, T. E.

G. Cao, L. K. Rabenberg, C. M. Nunn, and T. E. Mallouk, Chem. Mater. 3, 149 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Matsuoka, T.

T. Matsuoka, T. Tohda, and T. Nitta, J. Electrochem. Soc. 130, 417 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Meinardi, F.

S. Brovelli, A. Chiodini, A. Lauria, F. Meinardi, and A. Paleari, Phys. Rev. B 73, 073406 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meltzer, R. S.

R. S. Meltzer, S. P. Feofilov, B. Tissue, and H. B. Yuan, Phys. Rev. B 60, R14012 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Messaddeq, Y.

E. A. Morais, S. J. L. Ribeiro, L. V. A. Scalvi, C. V. Santilli, L. O. Ruggiero, S. H. Pulcinelli, and Y. Messaddeq, J. Alloys Compd. 344, 217 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moon, T.

T. Moon, S. T. Hwang, D. R. Jung, D. Son, C. Kim, J. Kim, M. Kang, and B. Park, J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 4164 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Morais, E. A.

E. A. Morais, S. J. L. Ribeiro, L. V. A. Scalvi, C. V. Santilli, L. O. Ruggiero, S. H. Pulcinelli, and Y. Messaddeq, J. Alloys Compd. 344, 217 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Morton, J. P.

Z. M. Jarzebski and J. P. Morton, J. Electrochem. Soc. 123, 333C (1976).
[CrossRef]

Nitta, T.

T. Matsuoka, T. Tohda, and T. Nitta, J. Electrochem. Soc. 130, 417 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Nunn, C. M.

G. Cao, L. K. Rabenberg, C. M. Nunn, and T. E. Mallouk, Chem. Mater. 3, 149 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Paleari, A.

S. Brovelli, A. Chiodini, A. Lauria, F. Meinardi, and A. Paleari, Phys. Rev. B 73, 073406 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Chiodini, A. Paleari, G. Brambilla, and E. R. Taylor, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4449 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pang, M. L.

W. Y. Shen, M. L. Pang, J. Lin, and J. Fang, J. Electrochem. Soc. 152, H25 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, B.

T. Moon, S. T. Hwang, D. R. Jung, D. Son, C. Kim, J. Kim, M. Kang, and B. Park, J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 4164 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

A. Polman, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Coffa, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, A. Polman, and R. Serna, Phys. Rev. B 49, 16313 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Priolo, F.

S. Coffa, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, A. Polman, and R. Serna, Phys. Rev. B 49, 16313 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pulcinelli, S. H.

E. A. Morais, S. J. L. Ribeiro, L. V. A. Scalvi, C. V. Santilli, L. O. Ruggiero, S. H. Pulcinelli, and Y. Messaddeq, J. Alloys Compd. 344, 217 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rabenberg, L. K.

G. Cao, L. K. Rabenberg, C. M. Nunn, and T. E. Mallouk, Chem. Mater. 3, 149 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ribeiro, S. J. L.

E. A. Morais, S. J. L. Ribeiro, L. V. A. Scalvi, C. V. Santilli, L. O. Ruggiero, S. H. Pulcinelli, and Y. Messaddeq, J. Alloys Compd. 344, 217 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ruggiero, L. O.

E. A. Morais, S. J. L. Ribeiro, L. V. A. Scalvi, C. V. Santilli, L. O. Ruggiero, S. H. Pulcinelli, and Y. Messaddeq, J. Alloys Compd. 344, 217 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Santilli, C. V.

E. A. Morais, S. J. L. Ribeiro, L. V. A. Scalvi, C. V. Santilli, L. O. Ruggiero, S. H. Pulcinelli, and Y. Messaddeq, J. Alloys Compd. 344, 217 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Scalvi, L. V. A.

E. A. Morais, S. J. L. Ribeiro, L. V. A. Scalvi, C. V. Santilli, L. O. Ruggiero, S. H. Pulcinelli, and Y. Messaddeq, J. Alloys Compd. 344, 217 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Serna, R.

S. Coffa, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, A. Polman, and R. Serna, Phys. Rev. B 49, 16313 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shen, W. Y.

W. Y. Shen, M. L. Pang, J. Lin, and J. Fang, J. Electrochem. Soc. 152, H25 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Son, D.

T. Moon, S. T. Hwang, D. R. Jung, D. Son, C. Kim, J. Kim, M. Kang, and B. Park, J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 4164 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stouwdam, J. W.

J. W. Stouwdam, G. A. Hebbink, J. Huskens, and F. van Veggel, Chem. Mater. 15, 4604 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, E. R.

N. Chiodini, A. Paleari, G. Brambilla, and E. R. Taylor, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4449 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tissue, B.

R. S. Meltzer, S. P. Feofilov, B. Tissue, and H. B. Yuan, Phys. Rev. B 60, R14012 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tohda, T.

T. Matsuoka, T. Tohda, and T. Nitta, J. Electrochem. Soc. 130, 417 (1983).
[CrossRef]

van Veggel, F.

J. W. Stouwdam, G. A. Hebbink, J. Huskens, and F. van Veggel, Chem. Mater. 15, 4604 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M. J.

M. J. Weber, Phys. Rev. 171, 283 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

J. Wu and J. L. Coffer, J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 16088 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, H. B.

R. S. Meltzer, S. P. Feofilov, B. Tissue, and H. B. Yuan, Phys. Rev. B 60, R14012 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. Chiodini, A. Paleari, G. Brambilla, and E. R. Taylor, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4449 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (2)

G. Cao, L. K. Rabenberg, C. M. Nunn, and T. E. Mallouk, Chem. Mater. 3, 149 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Stouwdam, G. A. Hebbink, J. Huskens, and F. van Veggel, Chem. Mater. 15, 4604 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloys Compd. (1)

E. A. Morais, S. J. L. Ribeiro, L. V. A. Scalvi, C. V. Santilli, L. O. Ruggiero, S. H. Pulcinelli, and Y. Messaddeq, J. Alloys Compd. 344, 217 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Polman, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (3)

Z. M. Jarzebski and J. P. Morton, J. Electrochem. Soc. 123, 333C (1976).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsuoka, T. Tohda, and T. Nitta, J. Electrochem. Soc. 130, 417 (1983).
[CrossRef]

W. Y. Shen, M. L. Pang, J. Lin, and J. Fang, J. Electrochem. Soc. 152, H25 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (2)

J. Wu and J. L. Coffer, J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 16088 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Moon, S. T. Hwang, D. R. Jung, D. Son, C. Kim, J. Kim, M. Kang, and B. Park, J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 4164 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

M. J. Weber, Phys. Rev. 171, 283 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (4)

H. P. Christensen, D. R. Gabbe, and H. P. Jenssen, Phys. Rev. B 25, 1467 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Meltzer, S. P. Feofilov, B. Tissue, and H. B. Yuan, Phys. Rev. B 60, R14012 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Coffa, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, A. Polman, and R. Serna, Phys. Rev. B 49, 16313 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Brovelli, A. Chiodini, A. Lauria, F. Meinardi, and A. Paleari, Phys. Rev. B 73, 073406 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, D.R.Lide, ed., 85th ed. (CRC, 2004), online version (retrieved June 8, 2009).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

NIR PL spectrum of SnO 2 : Er 3 + nanocrystals, excited by a xenon lamp at 300 nm at RT. The inset shows the TEM image of the samples.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of PL spectra at 10, 20, 50, and 100 K upon excitation at 300 nm. All the peaks were identified to originate from the same Er 3 + site. I, II, III, and IV represent the transitions from the lowest four sublevels of I 4 13 / 2 to the sublevels of I 4 15 / 2 , respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

PLE spectrum of SnO 2 : Er 3 + nanocrystals by monitoring the emission at 1551.2 nm at RT. The inset shows the UV/visible reflectance spectrum of the same sample. F ( R ) is the Kubelka–Munk function with F ( R ) = ( 1 R ) 2 / 2 R , where R is the reflectance.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

PL decays from I 4 13 / 2 of Er 3 + at 10 K (circle) and 300 K (triangle) in SnO 2 nanocrystals, respectively. The solid line is the calculated decay curve in bulk SnO 2 that corresponds to a radiative lifetime of 11.9 ms. The inset enlarges the initial stage of the decay curve at 10 K and the calculated one.

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