Abstract

We report greatly enhanced femtosecond laser-induced precipitation of nonlinear optical crystals in glasses owing to the addition of silver. Ba2TiSi2O8 (BTS) crystals were space-selectively precipitated inside a Ag+-doped BaOTiO2SiO2 glass by using a focused femtosecond laser with 800 nm, 250 kHz, and 150 fs. The laser induced crystals were confirmed by micro-Raman spectra to be BTS phases. The irradiation time for crystallization in Ag+-doped BaOTiO2SiO2 glasses was much shorter than that in undoped BaOTiO2SiO2 glasses under the same irradiation conditions. The mechanism responsible for the observed phenomenon is discussed.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (2)

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photonics 2, 219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, and Y. P. Svirko, Nat. Photonics 2, 99 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

Y. Dai, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, H. Ma, B. Lu, and B. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 181109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Juodkazis, N. Murazawa, H. Wakatsuki, and H. Misawa, Appl. Phys. A 87, 41 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhu, Y. Dai, H. Ma, S. Zhang, G. Lin, and J. Qiu, Opt. Express 15, 6069 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Th. G. Mayerhöfer and H. H. Dunken, Vib. Spectrosc. 25, 185 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

S. A. Markgraf, S. K. Sharma, and A. S. Bhalla, J. Mater. Res. 8, 635 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

P. B. Moore and J. Louisnathan, Science 156, 1361 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arai, A. Y.

Benino, Y.

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bhalla, A. S.

S. A. Markgraf, S. K. Sharma, and A. S. Bhalla, J. Mater. Res. 8, 635 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bovatsek, J.

Dai, Y.

B. Zhu, Y. Dai, H. Ma, S. Zhang, G. Lin, and J. Qiu, Opt. Express 15, 6069 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Dai, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, H. Ma, B. Lu, and B. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 181109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dunken, H. H.

Th. G. Mayerhöfer and H. H. Dunken, Vib. Spectrosc. 25, 185 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Eaton, S. M.

Fujiwara, T.

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gamaly, E. G.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gattass, R. R.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photonics 2, 219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hallo, L.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herman, P. R.

Hirao, K.

Ichioka, Y.

Itoh, K.

Juodkazis, S.

S. Juodkazis, N. Murazawa, H. Wakatsuki, and H. Misawa, Appl. Phys. A 87, 41 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kazansky, P. G.

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, and Y. P. Svirko, Nat. Photonics 2, 99 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Komatsu, T.

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, G.

Louisnathan, J.

P. B. Moore and J. Louisnathan, Science 156, 1361 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, B.

Y. Dai, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, H. Ma, B. Lu, and B. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 181109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, H.

Y. Dai, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, H. Ma, B. Lu, and B. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 181109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhu, Y. Dai, H. Ma, S. Zhang, G. Lin, and J. Qiu, Opt. Express 15, 6069 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Markgraf, S. A.

S. A. Markgraf, S. K. Sharma, and A. S. Bhalla, J. Mater. Res. 8, 635 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Matoba, O.

Mayerhöfer, Th. G.

Th. G. Mayerhöfer and H. H. Dunken, Vib. Spectrosc. 25, 185 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photonics 2, 219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

S. Juodkazis, N. Murazawa, H. Wakatsuki, and H. Misawa, Appl. Phys. A 87, 41 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitsuyu, T.

Miura, K.

Moore, P. B.

P. B. Moore and J. Louisnathan, Science 156, 1361 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murazawa, N.

S. Juodkazis, N. Murazawa, H. Wakatsuki, and H. Misawa, Appl. Phys. A 87, 41 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nicolai, P.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishimura, K.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qiu, J.

Shah, L.

Sharma, S. K.

S. A. Markgraf, S. K. Sharma, and A. S. Bhalla, J. Mater. Res. 8, 635 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Svirko, Y. P.

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, and Y. P. Svirko, Nat. Photonics 2, 99 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, Y.

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, S.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tikhonchuk, V. T.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wakatsuki, H.

S. Juodkazis, N. Murazawa, H. Wakatsuki, and H. Misawa, Appl. Phys. A 87, 41 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, W.

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, and Y. P. Svirko, Nat. Photonics 2, 99 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, F.

Yu, B.

Y. Dai, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, H. Ma, B. Lu, and B. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 181109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Zhang, S.

Zhu, B.

B. Zhu, Y. Dai, H. Ma, S. Zhang, G. Lin, and J. Qiu, Opt. Express 15, 6069 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Dai, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, H. Ma, B. Lu, and B. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 181109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A (1)

S. Juodkazis, N. Murazawa, H. Wakatsuki, and H. Misawa, Appl. Phys. A 87, 41 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Dai, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, H. Ma, B. Lu, and B. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 181109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Takahashi, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, and T. Komatsu, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Res. (1)

S. A. Markgraf, S. K. Sharma, and A. S. Bhalla, J. Mater. Res. 8, 635 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (2)

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, Nat. Photonics 2, 219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, and Y. P. Svirko, Nat. Photonics 2, 99 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

P. B. Moore and J. Louisnathan, Science 156, 1361 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vib. Spectrosc. (1)

Th. G. Mayerhöfer and H. H. Dunken, Vib. Spectrosc. 25, 185 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Time dependence of emission spectra during femtosecond laser irradiation. The insets are photographs around the focal region during femtosecond laser irradiation and top-view micrograph of the focal region illuminated by natural light after femtosecond laser irradiation (laser power: 900 mW; irradiation time: 5 s) in the Ag + -doped BTS glass. The arrow shows the polarization direction of the laser beam.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Side-view micrographs of the side view of the focal regions illuminated by natural light after femtosecond laser irradiation (laser power: 900 mW; irradiation time: 0.1–30 s).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Micro-Raman spectra of the Ag + -doped BTS glass (0 s) and of the femtosecond laser-irradiated region after irradiation for 1, 5, 10, and 20 s.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence between the required time for crystallization and the laser power in Ag + -doped BTS glass and undoped BTS glass.

Equations (2)

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n Ag + n h v n Ag ,
n Ag KT Ag n .

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