Abstract

We propose and demonstrate a polarization-independent, differential-phase-shift, quantum-key distribution system with upconversion detectors. Even though the detectors have polarization dependency, use of alternative polarization modulation and a two-bit delay interferometer achieves polarization-insensitive operation. In an experiment, sifted key bits were polarization-independently generated over 50km fiber.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. A. Albota and F. N. C. Wong, Opt. Lett. 29, 1449 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. P. Vandevender and P. G. Kwiat, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1433 (2004).
  4. C. Langrock, E. Diamanti, R. V. Roussev, Y. Yamamoto, M. N. Fejer, and H. Takesue, Opt. Lett. 30, 1725 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Pan, H. Dong, and H. Zeng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191108 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, New J. Phys. 8, 32 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, New J. Phys. 7, 232 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, Opt. Express 14, 9522 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. A 68, 022317 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Kamada, M. Asobe, T. Honjo, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, and H. Miyazawa, Opt. Lett. 33, 639 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2006

H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, Opt. Express 14, 9522 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Pan, H. Dong, and H. Zeng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, New J. Phys. 8, 32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, New J. Phys. 7, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Langrock, E. Diamanti, R. V. Roussev, Y. Yamamoto, M. N. Fejer, and H. Takesue, Opt. Lett. 30, 1725 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

M. A. Albota and F. N. C. Wong, Opt. Lett. 29, 1449 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Vandevender and P. G. Kwiat, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1433 (2004).

2003

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. A 68, 022317 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Albota, M. A.

Asobe, M.

Cova, S.

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, New J. Phys. 8, 32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Diamanti, E.

Dong, H.

H. Pan, H. Dong, and H. Zeng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, Opt. Express 14, 9522 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, New J. Phys. 7, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. N.

Gisin, N.

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, New J. Phys. 8, 32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Honjo, T.

H. Kamada, M. Asobe, T. Honjo, H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, and H. Miyazawa, Opt. Lett. 33, 639 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, New J. Phys. 7, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, K.

H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, New J. Phys. 7, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. A 68, 022317 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kamada, H.

Krainer, L.

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, New J. Phys. 8, 32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kwiat, P. G.

A. P. Vandevender and P. G. Kwiat, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1433 (2004).

Langrock, C.

Miyazawa, H.

Nishida, Y.

Pan, H.

H. Pan, H. Dong, and H. Zeng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rech, I.

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, New J. Phys. 8, 32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ribordy, G.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rochas, A.

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, New J. Phys. 8, 32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roussev, R. V.

Tadanaga, O.

Takesue, H.

Tanzilli, S.

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, New J. Phys. 8, 32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thew, R. T.

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, New J. Phys. 8, 32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, W.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tokura, Y.

Vandevender, A. P.

A. P. Vandevender and P. G. Kwiat, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1433 (2004).

Waks, E.

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. A 68, 022317 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wong, F. N. C.

Yamamoto, Y.

H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, Opt. Express 14, 9522 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Langrock, E. Diamanti, R. V. Roussev, Y. Yamamoto, M. N. Fejer, and H. Takesue, Opt. Lett. 30, 1725 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, New J. Phys. 7, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. A 68, 022317 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zbinden, H.

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, New J. Phys. 8, 32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zeller, S. C.

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, New J. Phys. 8, 32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, H.

H. Pan, H. Dong, and H. Zeng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. Pan, H. Dong, and H. Zeng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

A. P. Vandevender and P. G. Kwiat, J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1433 (2004).

New J. Phys.

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, New J. Phys. 8, 32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, New J. Phys. 7, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. A 68, 022317 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Polarization modulation scheme for polarization-independent DPS-QKD operation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup: LD, laser diode; IM, intensity modulator; PPG, pulse-pattern generator; DG, data generator; PM, phase modulator; ATT, attenuator; Pol Mod., polarization modulator; TIA, time-interval analyzer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Upconversion detector configuration.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental results of photon count rate and sifted-key generation rate.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental results of QBER.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

e + = e V cos θ + e H e i φ sin θ ,
e × = e V sin θ e H e i φ cos θ ,
I + = ( e + * e V ) 2 = ( ( e V * cos θ + e H * e i ϕ sin θ ) e V ) 2 = cos 2 θ ,
I × = ( e × * e V ) 2 = ( ( e V * sin θ e H * e i ϕ cos θ ) e V ) 2 = sin 2 θ .
R sifted = ν μ η T e ν μ η T t d 2 ( bit s ) ,

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