Abstract

We report a systematic study on the dependence of nanowire evanescent wave coupling efficiency on wavelength, cross angle, and core diameter. An 800nm diameter silica taper was used for light launching. Three poly(trimethylene terephthalate) nanowires with 640nm, 790nm, and 950nm diameters were used for light transmission. Five wavelengths (visible, 473, 532, 650nm; near-IR, 1310 and 1550nm) were used as transmission signals. The dependence of coupling efficiency was investigated at cross angles from 90° to 0° with a 5° changing step. It is observed that the coupling efficiency is higher for longer wavelength of light, smaller cross angle, and smaller nanowire diameter.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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2008 (5)

X. Xing, H. Zhu, Y. Wang, and B. Li, Nano Lett. 8, 2839 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Xing, Y. Wang, and B. Li, Opt. Express 16, 7815 (2008).

J. Shi, M. Guo, and B. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 121101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Guo, J. Shi, and B. Li, Opt. Lett. 33, 2104 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. V. Galan and P. Sanchis, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 985 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, E. Trepagnier, H. Shroff, P. D. Yang, and J. Liphardt, Nature Mater. 5, 97 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

D. J. Sirbuly, M. Law, P. Pauzauskle, H. Yan, A. V. Maslov, K. Knutsen, C. Z. Ning, R. J. Saykally, and P. D. Yang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 7800 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Herland, P. Bjork, K. Nilsson, J. Olsson, P. Asberg, P. Konradsson, P. Hammarstrom, and O. Inganas, J. Adv. Mater. 17, 1466 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Donald, Law Matt, H. Yan, and P. Yang, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 15190 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

C. J. Barrelet, A. B. Greytak, and C. M. Lieber, Nano Lett. 4, 1981 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Law, D. J. Sirbuly, J. C. Johnson, J. Goldberger, R. J. Saykally, and P. Yang, Science 305, 1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Vivien, S. Laval, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, and D. Pascal, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2429 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Asberg, P.

A. Herland, P. Bjork, K. Nilsson, J. Olsson, P. Asberg, P. Konradsson, P. Hammarstrom, and O. Inganas, J. Adv. Mater. 17, 1466 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ashcom, J. B.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barrelet, C. J.

C. J. Barrelet, A. B. Greytak, and C. M. Lieber, Nano Lett. 4, 1981 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bjork, P.

A. Herland, P. Bjork, K. Nilsson, J. Olsson, P. Asberg, P. Konradsson, P. Hammarstrom, and O. Inganas, J. Adv. Mater. 17, 1466 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cassan, E.

Donald, J. S.

J. S. Donald, Law Matt, H. Yan, and P. Yang, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 15190 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Galan, J. V.

J. V. Galan and P. Sanchis, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 985 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gattass, R. R.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldberger, J.

M. Law, D. J. Sirbuly, J. C. Johnson, J. Goldberger, R. J. Saykally, and P. Yang, Science 305, 1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greytak, A. B.

C. J. Barrelet, A. B. Greytak, and C. M. Lieber, Nano Lett. 4, 1981 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guo, M.

J. Shi, M. Guo, and B. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 121101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Guo, J. Shi, and B. Li, Opt. Lett. 33, 2104 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hammarstrom, P.

A. Herland, P. Bjork, K. Nilsson, J. Olsson, P. Asberg, P. Konradsson, P. Hammarstrom, and O. Inganas, J. Adv. Mater. 17, 1466 (2005).
[CrossRef]

He, S.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herland, A.

A. Herland, P. Bjork, K. Nilsson, J. Olsson, P. Asberg, P. Konradsson, P. Hammarstrom, and O. Inganas, J. Adv. Mater. 17, 1466 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, K.

Inganas, O.

A. Herland, P. Bjork, K. Nilsson, J. Olsson, P. Asberg, P. Konradsson, P. Hammarstrom, and O. Inganas, J. Adv. Mater. 17, 1466 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, J. C.

M. Law, D. J. Sirbuly, J. C. Johnson, J. Goldberger, R. J. Saykally, and P. Yang, Science 305, 1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knutsen, K.

D. J. Sirbuly, M. Law, P. Pauzauskle, H. Yan, A. V. Maslov, K. Knutsen, C. Z. Ning, R. J. Saykally, and P. D. Yang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 7800 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Konradsson, P.

A. Herland, P. Bjork, K. Nilsson, J. Olsson, P. Asberg, P. Konradsson, P. Hammarstrom, and O. Inganas, J. Adv. Mater. 17, 1466 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laval, S.

Law, M.

D. J. Sirbuly, M. Law, P. Pauzauskle, H. Yan, A. V. Maslov, K. Knutsen, C. Z. Ning, R. J. Saykally, and P. D. Yang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 7800 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Law, D. J. Sirbuly, J. C. Johnson, J. Goldberger, R. J. Saykally, and P. Yang, Science 305, 1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le Roux, X.

Li, B.

J. Shi, M. Guo, and B. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 121101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Xing, H. Zhu, Y. Wang, and B. Li, Nano Lett. 8, 2839 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Guo, J. Shi, and B. Li, Opt. Lett. 33, 2104 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Xing, Y. Wang, and B. Li, Opt. Express 16, 7815 (2008).

Lieber, C. M.

C. J. Barrelet, A. B. Greytak, and C. M. Lieber, Nano Lett. 4, 1981 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liphardt, J.

P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, E. Trepagnier, H. Shroff, P. D. Yang, and J. Liphardt, Nature Mater. 5, 97 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lou, J.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maslov, A. V.

D. J. Sirbuly, M. Law, P. Pauzauskle, H. Yan, A. V. Maslov, K. Knutsen, C. Z. Ning, R. J. Saykally, and P. D. Yang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 7800 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matt, Law

J. S. Donald, Law Matt, H. Yan, and P. Yang, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 15190 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maxwell, I.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazur, E.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nilsson, K.

A. Herland, P. Bjork, K. Nilsson, J. Olsson, P. Asberg, P. Konradsson, P. Hammarstrom, and O. Inganas, J. Adv. Mater. 17, 1466 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ning, C. Z.

D. J. Sirbuly, M. Law, P. Pauzauskle, H. Yan, A. V. Maslov, K. Knutsen, C. Z. Ning, R. J. Saykally, and P. D. Yang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 7800 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olsson, J.

A. Herland, P. Bjork, K. Nilsson, J. Olsson, P. Asberg, P. Konradsson, P. Hammarstrom, and O. Inganas, J. Adv. Mater. 17, 1466 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pascal, D.

Pauzauskie, P. J.

P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, E. Trepagnier, H. Shroff, P. D. Yang, and J. Liphardt, Nature Mater. 5, 97 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pauzauskle, P.

D. J. Sirbuly, M. Law, P. Pauzauskle, H. Yan, A. V. Maslov, K. Knutsen, C. Z. Ning, R. J. Saykally, and P. D. Yang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 7800 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radenovic, A.

P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, E. Trepagnier, H. Shroff, P. D. Yang, and J. Liphardt, Nature Mater. 5, 97 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sanchis, P.

J. V. Galan and P. Sanchis, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 985 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Saykally, R. J.

D. J. Sirbuly, M. Law, P. Pauzauskle, H. Yan, A. V. Maslov, K. Knutsen, C. Z. Ning, R. J. Saykally, and P. D. Yang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 7800 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Law, D. J. Sirbuly, J. C. Johnson, J. Goldberger, R. J. Saykally, and P. Yang, Science 305, 1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, M.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, J.

J. Shi, M. Guo, and B. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 121101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Guo, J. Shi, and B. Li, Opt. Lett. 33, 2104 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shroff, H.

P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, E. Trepagnier, H. Shroff, P. D. Yang, and J. Liphardt, Nature Mater. 5, 97 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sirbuly, D. J.

D. J. Sirbuly, M. Law, P. Pauzauskle, H. Yan, A. V. Maslov, K. Knutsen, C. Z. Ning, R. J. Saykally, and P. D. Yang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 7800 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Law, D. J. Sirbuly, J. C. Johnson, J. Goldberger, R. J. Saykally, and P. Yang, Science 305, 1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tong, L.

K. Huang, S. Yang, and L. Tong, Appl. Opt. 46, 1429 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trepagnier, E.

P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, E. Trepagnier, H. Shroff, P. D. Yang, and J. Liphardt, Nature Mater. 5, 97 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

Wang, Y.

X. Xing, H. Zhu, Y. Wang, and B. Li, Nano Lett. 8, 2839 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Xing, Y. Wang, and B. Li, Opt. Express 16, 7815 (2008).

Xing, X.

X. Xing, Y. Wang, and B. Li, Opt. Express 16, 7815 (2008).

X. Xing, H. Zhu, Y. Wang, and B. Li, Nano Lett. 8, 2839 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, H.

D. J. Sirbuly, M. Law, P. Pauzauskle, H. Yan, A. V. Maslov, K. Knutsen, C. Z. Ning, R. J. Saykally, and P. D. Yang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 7800 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Donald, Law Matt, H. Yan, and P. Yang, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 15190 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P.

J. S. Donald, Law Matt, H. Yan, and P. Yang, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 15190 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Law, D. J. Sirbuly, J. C. Johnson, J. Goldberger, R. J. Saykally, and P. Yang, Science 305, 1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, P. D.

P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, E. Trepagnier, H. Shroff, P. D. Yang, and J. Liphardt, Nature Mater. 5, 97 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Sirbuly, M. Law, P. Pauzauskle, H. Yan, A. V. Maslov, K. Knutsen, C. Z. Ning, R. J. Saykally, and P. D. Yang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 7800 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, S.

Zhu, H.

X. Xing, H. Zhu, Y. Wang, and B. Li, Nano Lett. 8, 2839 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Shi, M. Guo, and B. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 121101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. V. Galan and P. Sanchis, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 985 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Adv. Mater. (1)

A. Herland, P. Bjork, K. Nilsson, J. Olsson, P. Asberg, P. Konradsson, P. Hammarstrom, and O. Inganas, J. Adv. Mater. 17, 1466 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

J. S. Donald, Law Matt, H. Yan, and P. Yang, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 15190 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (2)

X. Xing, H. Zhu, Y. Wang, and B. Li, Nano Lett. 8, 2839 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Barrelet, A. B. Greytak, and C. M. Lieber, Nano Lett. 4, 1981 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Mater. (1)

P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, E. Trepagnier, H. Shroff, P. D. Yang, and J. Liphardt, Nature Mater. 5, 97 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

X. Xing, Y. Wang, and B. Li, Opt. Express 16, 7815 (2008).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

D. J. Sirbuly, M. Law, P. Pauzauskle, H. Yan, A. V. Maslov, K. Knutsen, C. Z. Ning, R. J. Saykally, and P. D. Yang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 7800 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

M. Law, D. J. Sirbuly, J. C. Johnson, J. Goldberger, R. J. Saykally, and P. Yang, Science 305, 1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup. (a) Top view of the setup, (b) illustration of the measurement with different cross angles.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Optical microscope images of the evanescent wave coupling and SEM image of the 800 nm diameter silica taper. Green ( 532 nm ) light was launched from an 800 nm diameter silica tapered fiber into a 640 nm diameter PNW at different cross angles from 90° to 0° with a 5° changing step. The white arrows show the propagation directions of the launched lights. The scale bar represents 20 μ m . The scale bar in the bottom right SEM image represents 1 μ m . (b) Measured coupling efficiency versus cross angle ( θ ) at different wavelengths.

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