Abstract

An off-beam (OB) detection approach is suggested and experimentally investigated and optimized for quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS). This OB-QEPAS configuration, very simple in assembly, not only allows for use of larger excitation optical beams and facilitating optical alignment but also provides higher enhancement of photoacoustic signals than previously published results based on the common on-beam QEPAS under the same experimental conditions. A normalized noise equivalent absorption coefficient (1σ) of 5.9×109cm1WHz12 was obtained for water vapor detection at normal atmospheric pressure.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, Opt. Lett. 27, 1902 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Horstjann, Y. A. Bakhirkin, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. M. Wong, C. J. Hill, and R. Q. Yang, Appl. Phys. B 79, 799 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Liu, J. Li, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, X. Gao, W. Chen, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B. 94, 527 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. D. Wojcik, M. C. Phillips, B. D. Cannon, and M. S. Taubman, Appl. Phys. B 85, 307 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, D. V. Serebryakov, A. L. Malinovsky, and I. V. Morozov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043105 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Pohlkötter, U. Willer, C. Bauer, T. Schossig, M. Mordmüller, and W. Schade, in Biomedical Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JMA29.
  7. A. Miklos, P. Hess, and Z. Bozoki, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1937 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. Petra, J. Zweck, A. A. Kosterev, S. E. Minkoff, and D. Thomazy, Appl. Phys. B 94, 673 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2009

K. Liu, J. Li, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, X. Gao, W. Chen, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B. 94, 527 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Petra, J. Zweck, A. A. Kosterev, S. E. Minkoff, and D. Thomazy, Appl. Phys. B 94, 673 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006

M. D. Wojcik, M. C. Phillips, B. D. Cannon, and M. S. Taubman, Appl. Phys. B 85, 307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, D. V. Serebryakov, A. L. Malinovsky, and I. V. Morozov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. Horstjann, Y. A. Bakhirkin, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. M. Wong, C. J. Hill, and R. Q. Yang, Appl. Phys. B 79, 799 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

A. Miklos, P. Hess, and Z. Bozoki, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1937 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bakhirkin, Y. A.

M. Horstjann, Y. A. Bakhirkin, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. M. Wong, C. J. Hill, and R. Q. Yang, Appl. Phys. B 79, 799 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, Opt. Lett. 27, 1902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, C.

A. Pohlkötter, U. Willer, C. Bauer, T. Schossig, M. Mordmüller, and W. Schade, in Biomedical Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JMA29.

Bozoki, Z.

A. Miklos, P. Hess, and Z. Bozoki, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1937 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cannon, B. D.

M. D. Wojcik, M. C. Phillips, B. D. Cannon, and M. S. Taubman, Appl. Phys. B 85, 307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

K. Liu, J. Li, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, X. Gao, W. Chen, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B. 94, 527 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Curl, R. F.

M. Horstjann, Y. A. Bakhirkin, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. M. Wong, C. J. Hill, and R. Q. Yang, Appl. Phys. B 79, 799 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, Opt. Lett. 27, 1902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gao, X.

K. Liu, J. Li, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, X. Gao, W. Chen, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B. 94, 527 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hess, P.

A. Miklos, P. Hess, and Z. Bozoki, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1937 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hill, C. J.

M. Horstjann, Y. A. Bakhirkin, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. M. Wong, C. J. Hill, and R. Q. Yang, Appl. Phys. B 79, 799 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Horstjann, M.

M. Horstjann, Y. A. Bakhirkin, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. M. Wong, C. J. Hill, and R. Q. Yang, Appl. Phys. B 79, 799 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kosterev, A. A.

N. Petra, J. Zweck, A. A. Kosterev, S. E. Minkoff, and D. Thomazy, Appl. Phys. B 94, 673 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, D. V. Serebryakov, A. L. Malinovsky, and I. V. Morozov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Horstjann, Y. A. Bakhirkin, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. M. Wong, C. J. Hill, and R. Q. Yang, Appl. Phys. B 79, 799 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, Opt. Lett. 27, 1902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

K. Liu, J. Li, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, X. Gao, W. Chen, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B. 94, 527 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, K.

K. Liu, J. Li, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, X. Gao, W. Chen, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B. 94, 527 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Malinovsky, A. L.

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, D. V. Serebryakov, A. L. Malinovsky, and I. V. Morozov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miklos, A.

A. Miklos, P. Hess, and Z. Bozoki, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1937 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Minkoff, S. E.

N. Petra, J. Zweck, A. A. Kosterev, S. E. Minkoff, and D. Thomazy, Appl. Phys. B 94, 673 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mordmüller, M.

A. Pohlkötter, U. Willer, C. Bauer, T. Schossig, M. Mordmüller, and W. Schade, in Biomedical Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JMA29.

Morozov, I. V.

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, D. V. Serebryakov, A. L. Malinovsky, and I. V. Morozov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Petra, N.

N. Petra, J. Zweck, A. A. Kosterev, S. E. Minkoff, and D. Thomazy, Appl. Phys. B 94, 673 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, M. C.

M. D. Wojcik, M. C. Phillips, B. D. Cannon, and M. S. Taubman, Appl. Phys. B 85, 307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pohlkötter, A.

A. Pohlkötter, U. Willer, C. Bauer, T. Schossig, M. Mordmüller, and W. Schade, in Biomedical Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JMA29.

Schade, W.

A. Pohlkötter, U. Willer, C. Bauer, T. Schossig, M. Mordmüller, and W. Schade, in Biomedical Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JMA29.

Schossig, T.

A. Pohlkötter, U. Willer, C. Bauer, T. Schossig, M. Mordmüller, and W. Schade, in Biomedical Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JMA29.

Serebryakov, D. V.

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, D. V. Serebryakov, A. L. Malinovsky, and I. V. Morozov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tan, T.

K. Liu, J. Li, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, X. Gao, W. Chen, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B. 94, 527 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Taubman, M. S.

M. D. Wojcik, M. C. Phillips, B. D. Cannon, and M. S. Taubman, Appl. Phys. B 85, 307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thomazy, D.

N. Petra, J. Zweck, A. A. Kosterev, S. E. Minkoff, and D. Thomazy, Appl. Phys. B 94, 673 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F. K.

K. Liu, J. Li, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, X. Gao, W. Chen, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B. 94, 527 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, D. V. Serebryakov, A. L. Malinovsky, and I. V. Morozov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Horstjann, Y. A. Bakhirkin, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. M. Wong, C. J. Hill, and R. Q. Yang, Appl. Phys. B 79, 799 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, Opt. Lett. 27, 1902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

K. Liu, J. Li, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, X. Gao, W. Chen, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B. 94, 527 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Willer, U.

A. Pohlkötter, U. Willer, C. Bauer, T. Schossig, M. Mordmüller, and W. Schade, in Biomedical Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JMA29.

Wojcik, M. D.

M. D. Wojcik, M. C. Phillips, B. D. Cannon, and M. S. Taubman, Appl. Phys. B 85, 307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wong, C. M.

M. Horstjann, Y. A. Bakhirkin, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. M. Wong, C. J. Hill, and R. Q. Yang, Appl. Phys. B 79, 799 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, R. Q.

M. Horstjann, Y. A. Bakhirkin, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. M. Wong, C. J. Hill, and R. Q. Yang, Appl. Phys. B 79, 799 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

K. Liu, J. Li, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, X. Gao, W. Chen, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B. 94, 527 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zweck, J.

N. Petra, J. Zweck, A. A. Kosterev, S. E. Minkoff, and D. Thomazy, Appl. Phys. B 94, 673 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

M. Horstjann, Y. A. Bakhirkin, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. M. Wong, C. J. Hill, and R. Q. Yang, Appl. Phys. B 79, 799 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Wojcik, M. C. Phillips, B. D. Cannon, and M. S. Taubman, Appl. Phys. B 85, 307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Petra, J. Zweck, A. A. Kosterev, S. E. Minkoff, and D. Thomazy, Appl. Phys. B 94, 673 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B.

K. Liu, J. Li, L. Wang, T. Tan, W. Zhang, X. Gao, W. Chen, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Phys. B. 94, 527 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

A. Miklos, P. Hess, and Z. Bozoki, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1937 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, D. V. Serebryakov, A. L. Malinovsky, and I. V. Morozov, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Pohlkötter, U. Willer, C. Bauer, T. Schossig, M. Mordmüller, and W. Schade, in Biomedical Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JMA29.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Geometric sketch of the AR and dimensions of the QTF used in the present work, (b)–(d) off-beam configurations for QTF-based photoacoustic signal detection.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the experimental setup.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) OB-QEPAS signals as function of the AR length for different AR diameters (the inner and outer diameters are given in Table 1). Curves are Lorentzian profile fit (note that the slit width was not optimized in these measurements). (b) Diameter-to-length ratio R at maximum QTF signal plotted versus the AR inner diameter D.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Normalized H 2 O absorption spectra acquired by QEPAS. OB, acquired with AR1 using off-beam configuration of Fig. 1b; MR, acquired with common on-beam QEPAS with microresonator; QTF, acquired with common on-beam QEPAS without microresonator. The experimental conditions are shown in Table 1. (b) Background noise measurement for AR1-based OB-QEPAS setup.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Geometrical Parameter of Four Types of ARs Used and Corresponding Normalized QTF Signal Measured with Fig. 1b Configuration a

Equations (1)

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R = 0.04546 + 0.232 × D .

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