Abstract

We investigate the local optical response of split-ring resonator-(SRR)-based metamaterials with an apertureless scanning near-field optical microscope. By mapping the near fields of suitably resonant micrometer-sized SRRs in the near-infrared spectral region with an uncoated silicon tip, we obtain a spatial resolution of better than λ50. The experimental results confirm numerical predictions of the near-field excitations of SRRs. Combining experimental near-field optical studies with near- and far-field optical simulations provides a detailed understanding of resonance mechanisms in subwavelength structures and will facilitate an efficient approach to improved designs.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Science 306, 1351 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. Additional parameters for the small structures (large structures) are the linewidth of 150nm(360nm) and the period of 0.7μm(1.62μm), which is identical in the x- and y-directions.
  10. The number directly indicates the number of nodal lines in the planar field pattern cut of the z component of the electric field and is consistent with the denotation in .
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    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, C. Etrich, T. Zentgraf, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, Opt. Express 14, 8827 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

H. Guo, N. Liu, L. Fu, H. Schweizer, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, Phys. Status Solidi B 244, 1256 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Abashin, U. Levy, K. Ikeda, and Y. Fainman, Opt. Lett. 32, 2602 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

A. Bek, R. Vogelgesang, and K. Kern, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 043703 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, C. Etrich, T. Zentgraf, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, Opt. Express 14, 8827 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. P. Johnson, A. Z. Khokhar, H. M. Chong, R. M. De La Rue, T. J. Antosiewicz, and S. McMeekin, Opto-Electron. Rev. 14, 187 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, Appl. Phys. B 84, 219 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, Opt. Lett. 30, 3356 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. P. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, H. Guo, N. Liu, C. Etrich, I. Loa, K. Syassen, J. Kuhl, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, Appl. Phys. B 84, 219 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

J. P. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opto-Electron. Rev. (1)

N. P. Johnson, A. Z. Khokhar, H. M. Chong, R. M. De La Rue, T. J. Antosiewicz, and S. McMeekin, Opto-Electron. Rev. 14, 187 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

H. Guo, N. Liu, L. Fu, H. Schweizer, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, Phys. Status Solidi B 244, 1256 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. Bek, R. Vogelgesang, and K. Kern, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 043703 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

Additional parameters for the small structures (large structures) are the linewidth of 150nm(360nm) and the period of 0.7μm(1.62μm), which is identical in the x- and y-directions.

The number directly indicates the number of nodal lines in the planar field pattern cut of the z component of the electric field and is consistent with the denotation in .

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) and (b) Atomic force microscope topography images of the small/large structures. (c) Measured reflectance spectra for the two different SRR sizes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured and calculated electric field distributions ( E z component) of the first- and third-order eigenmodes for a wavelength of λ = 2.65 μ m . (a) and (b) Results of the small SRRs with the dipolelike field; (c) and (d) results of the large SRRs with the quadrupolelike field for the third-order mode. The background color denotes the real part of the electric field component in the z direction. For better visibility, the one SRR is marked by the bold curve. The slight rotation is owing to sample misalignment.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Measured reflectance spectrum for the small SRRs in comparison with the measured spectrum for the cut-wire pieces (unfolded SRR). Both structures have nearly the same entire length and show a strong peak in the reflectance at the same spectral position. (b) Measured and (c) calculated electric field distributions of the cut wire for λ = 2.65 μ m . E inc denotes the electric field polarization of the incident wave. For better visibility, the cut wire is marked by a bold curve.

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