Abstract

Er3+ green upconversion (UC) emission corresponding to the transition of S324(H1122)I1524 is enhanced in a ErDy-codoped LiNbO3 crystal compared with Er-doped LiNbO3 under 800nm femtosecond-laser excitation at room temperature. The upconversion mechanisms are proposed based on spectral, kinetic, and pump-power dependence analyses. The energy-transfer efficiency from Dy3+(F924) to Er3+(F724) is 33%, which results in the enhancement of green UC emission. This energy transfer is advantageous for the Er3+ UC emission sensitized by Dy3+, especially in a low-phonon-energy host matrix.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2008 (1)

A. H. Li, L. Sun, Z. R. Zheng, Q. Lü, W. Wu, W. Liu, Y. Yang, and T. Lü, Appl. Phys. B 90, 29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

A. H. Li, Q. Lü, W. Wu, W. Liu, Y. Yang, and T. Lü, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 113102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, B. Zhu, S. Zhou, S. Xu, and J. R. Qiu, Opt. Express 15, 6883 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Sun, H. Yu, Q. Lü, F. Guo, H. Li, W. Cai, Y. Xu, and L. Zhao, Cryst. Res. Technol. 42, 730 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

E. Heumann, S. Bär, K. Rademaker, G. Huber, S. Butterworth, A. Diening, and W. Seelert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Milliez, A. Rapaport, M. Bass, A. Cassanho, and H. P. Jenssen, J. Disp. Technol. 2, 307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 013505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Demuro and I. Parker, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

F. Auzel, Chem. Rev. 104, 139 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, M. N. Palatnikov, N. V. Sidorov, and V. T. Kalinnikov, J. Mol. Struct. 704, 139 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2001 (1)

D. F. de Sousa, F. Batalioto, M. J. V. Bell, S. L. Oliveira, and L. A. O. Nunes, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 3308 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

Chr. P. Wyss, M. Kehrli, Th. Huber, P. J. Morris, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, A. I. Zagumennyi, Yu. D. Zavartsev, P. A. Studenikin, I. A. Shcherbakov, and A. F. Zerrouk, J. Lumin. 82, 137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Nakazawa, in Phosphor Handbook, S.Shionoya, W.M.Yen, eds. (CRC Press, 1999), p. 102.

1994 (1)

J. Ohwaki and Y. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Auzel, F.

F. Auzel, Chem. Rev. 104, 139 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bär, S.

E. Heumann, S. Bär, K. Rademaker, G. Huber, S. Butterworth, A. Diening, and W. Seelert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bass, M.

J. Milliez, A. Rapaport, M. Bass, A. Cassanho, and H. P. Jenssen, J. Disp. Technol. 2, 307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Batalioto, F.

D. F. de Sousa, F. Batalioto, M. J. V. Bell, S. L. Oliveira, and L. A. O. Nunes, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 3308 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bell, M. J. V.

D. F. de Sousa, F. Batalioto, M. J. V. Bell, S. L. Oliveira, and L. A. O. Nunes, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 3308 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Butterworth, S.

E. Heumann, S. Bär, K. Rademaker, G. Huber, S. Butterworth, A. Diening, and W. Seelert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.

L. Sun, H. Yu, Q. Lü, F. Guo, H. Li, W. Cai, Y. Xu, and L. Zhao, Cryst. Res. Technol. 42, 730 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cassanho, A.

J. Milliez, A. Rapaport, M. Bass, A. Cassanho, and H. P. Jenssen, J. Disp. Technol. 2, 307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cha, M.

de Sousa, D. F.

D. F. de Sousa, F. Batalioto, M. J. V. Bell, S. L. Oliveira, and L. A. O. Nunes, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 3308 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Demuro, A.

A. Demuro and I. Parker, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Diening, A.

E. Heumann, S. Bär, K. Rademaker, G. Huber, S. Butterworth, A. Diening, and W. Seelert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dominiak-Dzik, G.

G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, M. N. Palatnikov, N. V. Sidorov, and V. T. Kalinnikov, J. Mol. Struct. 704, 139 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gamelin, D. R.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Güdel, H. U.

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 013505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Guo, F.

L. Sun, H. Yu, Q. Lü, F. Guo, H. Li, W. Cai, Y. Xu, and L. Zhao, Cryst. Res. Technol. 42, 730 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hehlen, M. P.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Heumann, E.

E. Heumann, S. Bär, K. Rademaker, G. Huber, S. Butterworth, A. Diening, and W. Seelert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

E. Heumann, S. Bär, K. Rademaker, G. Huber, S. Butterworth, A. Diening, and W. Seelert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huber, Th.

Chr. P. Wyss, M. Kehrli, Th. Huber, P. J. Morris, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, A. I. Zagumennyi, Yu. D. Zavartsev, P. A. Studenikin, I. A. Shcherbakov, and A. F. Zerrouk, J. Lumin. 82, 137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jenssen, H. P.

J. Milliez, A. Rapaport, M. Bass, A. Cassanho, and H. P. Jenssen, J. Disp. Technol. 2, 307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ju, J. J.

Kalinnikov, V. T.

G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, M. N. Palatnikov, N. V. Sidorov, and V. T. Kalinnikov, J. Mol. Struct. 704, 139 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kehrli, M.

Chr. P. Wyss, M. Kehrli, Th. Huber, P. J. Morris, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, A. I. Zagumennyi, Yu. D. Zavartsev, P. A. Studenikin, I. A. Shcherbakov, and A. F. Zerrouk, J. Lumin. 82, 137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Krämer, K. W.

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 013505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. H.

Li, A. H.

A. H. Li, L. Sun, Z. R. Zheng, Q. Lü, W. Wu, W. Liu, Y. Yang, and T. Lü, Appl. Phys. B 90, 29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Li, Q. Lü, W. Wu, W. Liu, Y. Yang, and T. Lü, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 113102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

L. Sun, H. Yu, Q. Lü, F. Guo, H. Li, W. Cai, Y. Xu, and L. Zhao, Cryst. Res. Technol. 42, 730 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

A. H. Li, L. Sun, Z. R. Zheng, Q. Lü, W. Wu, W. Liu, Y. Yang, and T. Lü, Appl. Phys. B 90, 29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Li, Q. Lü, W. Wu, W. Liu, Y. Yang, and T. Lü, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 113102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lü, Q.

A. H. Li, L. Sun, Z. R. Zheng, Q. Lü, W. Wu, W. Liu, Y. Yang, and T. Lü, Appl. Phys. B 90, 29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Li, Q. Lü, W. Wu, W. Liu, Y. Yang, and T. Lü, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 113102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Sun, H. Yu, Q. Lü, F. Guo, H. Li, W. Cai, Y. Xu, and L. Zhao, Cryst. Res. Technol. 42, 730 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lü, T.

A. H. Li, L. Sun, Z. R. Zheng, Q. Lü, W. Wu, W. Liu, Y. Yang, and T. Lü, Appl. Phys. B 90, 29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Li, Q. Lü, W. Wu, W. Liu, Y. Yang, and T. Lü, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 113102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lüthi, S. R.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lüthy, W.

Chr. P. Wyss, M. Kehrli, Th. Huber, P. J. Morris, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, A. I. Zagumennyi, Yu. D. Zavartsev, P. A. Studenikin, I. A. Shcherbakov, and A. F. Zerrouk, J. Lumin. 82, 137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Milliez, J.

J. Milliez, A. Rapaport, M. Bass, A. Cassanho, and H. P. Jenssen, J. Disp. Technol. 2, 307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Morris, P. J.

Chr. P. Wyss, M. Kehrli, Th. Huber, P. J. Morris, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, A. I. Zagumennyi, Yu. D. Zavartsev, P. A. Studenikin, I. A. Shcherbakov, and A. F. Zerrouk, J. Lumin. 82, 137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nakazawa, E.

E. Nakazawa, in Phosphor Handbook, S.Shionoya, W.M.Yen, eds. (CRC Press, 1999), p. 102.

Nunes, L. A. O.

D. F. de Sousa, F. Batalioto, M. J. V. Bell, S. L. Oliveira, and L. A. O. Nunes, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 3308 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ohwaki, J.

J. Ohwaki and Y. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Oliveira, S. L.

D. F. de Sousa, F. Batalioto, M. J. V. Bell, S. L. Oliveira, and L. A. O. Nunes, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 3308 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Palatnikov, M. N.

G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, M. N. Palatnikov, N. V. Sidorov, and V. T. Kalinnikov, J. Mol. Struct. 704, 139 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Parker, I.

A. Demuro and I. Parker, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pollnau, M.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J. R.

Rademaker, K.

E. Heumann, S. Bär, K. Rademaker, G. Huber, S. Butterworth, A. Diening, and W. Seelert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rapaport, A.

J. Milliez, A. Rapaport, M. Bass, A. Cassanho, and H. P. Jenssen, J. Disp. Technol. 2, 307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Richards, B. S.

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 013505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ryba-Romanowski, W.

G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, M. N. Palatnikov, N. V. Sidorov, and V. T. Kalinnikov, J. Mol. Struct. 704, 139 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Seelert, W.

E. Heumann, S. Bär, K. Rademaker, G. Huber, S. Butterworth, A. Diening, and W. Seelert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Seo, H. J.

Shalav, A.

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 013505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shcherbakov, I. A.

Chr. P. Wyss, M. Kehrli, Th. Huber, P. J. Morris, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, A. I. Zagumennyi, Yu. D. Zavartsev, P. A. Studenikin, I. A. Shcherbakov, and A. F. Zerrouk, J. Lumin. 82, 137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sidorov, N. V.

G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, M. N. Palatnikov, N. V. Sidorov, and V. T. Kalinnikov, J. Mol. Struct. 704, 139 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Studenikin, P. A.

Chr. P. Wyss, M. Kehrli, Th. Huber, P. J. Morris, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, A. I. Zagumennyi, Yu. D. Zavartsev, P. A. Studenikin, I. A. Shcherbakov, and A. F. Zerrouk, J. Lumin. 82, 137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sun, L.

A. H. Li, L. Sun, Z. R. Zheng, Q. Lü, W. Wu, W. Liu, Y. Yang, and T. Lü, Appl. Phys. B 90, 29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Sun, H. Yu, Q. Lü, F. Guo, H. Li, W. Cai, Y. Xu, and L. Zhao, Cryst. Res. Technol. 42, 730 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Trupke, T.

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 013505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

J. Ohwaki and Y. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H. P.

Chr. P. Wyss, M. Kehrli, Th. Huber, P. J. Morris, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, A. I. Zagumennyi, Yu. D. Zavartsev, P. A. Studenikin, I. A. Shcherbakov, and A. F. Zerrouk, J. Lumin. 82, 137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wu, W.

A. H. Li, L. Sun, Z. R. Zheng, Q. Lü, W. Wu, W. Liu, Y. Yang, and T. Lü, Appl. Phys. B 90, 29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Li, Q. Lü, W. Wu, W. Liu, Y. Yang, and T. Lü, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 113102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wyss, Chr. P.

Chr. P. Wyss, M. Kehrli, Th. Huber, P. J. Morris, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, A. I. Zagumennyi, Yu. D. Zavartsev, P. A. Studenikin, I. A. Shcherbakov, and A. F. Zerrouk, J. Lumin. 82, 137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xu, S.

Xu, Y.

L. Sun, H. Yu, Q. Lü, F. Guo, H. Li, W. Cai, Y. Xu, and L. Zhao, Cryst. Res. Technol. 42, 730 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

A. H. Li, L. Sun, Z. R. Zheng, Q. Lü, W. Wu, W. Liu, Y. Yang, and T. Lü, Appl. Phys. B 90, 29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Li, Q. Lü, W. Wu, W. Liu, Y. Yang, and T. Lü, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 113102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H.

L. Sun, H. Yu, Q. Lü, F. Guo, H. Li, W. Cai, Y. Xu, and L. Zhao, Cryst. Res. Technol. 42, 730 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zagumennyi, A. I.

Chr. P. Wyss, M. Kehrli, Th. Huber, P. J. Morris, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, A. I. Zagumennyi, Yu. D. Zavartsev, P. A. Studenikin, I. A. Shcherbakov, and A. F. Zerrouk, J. Lumin. 82, 137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zavartsev, Yu. D.

Chr. P. Wyss, M. Kehrli, Th. Huber, P. J. Morris, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, A. I. Zagumennyi, Yu. D. Zavartsev, P. A. Studenikin, I. A. Shcherbakov, and A. F. Zerrouk, J. Lumin. 82, 137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zerrouk, A. F.

Chr. P. Wyss, M. Kehrli, Th. Huber, P. J. Morris, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, A. I. Zagumennyi, Yu. D. Zavartsev, P. A. Studenikin, I. A. Shcherbakov, and A. F. Zerrouk, J. Lumin. 82, 137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

Zhao, L.

L. Sun, H. Yu, Q. Lü, F. Guo, H. Li, W. Cai, Y. Xu, and L. Zhao, Cryst. Res. Technol. 42, 730 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Z. R.

A. H. Li, L. Sun, Z. R. Zheng, Q. Lü, W. Wu, W. Liu, Y. Yang, and T. Lü, Appl. Phys. B 90, 29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, S.

Zhu, B.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. H. Li, L. Sun, Z. R. Zheng, Q. Lü, W. Wu, W. Liu, Y. Yang, and T. Lü, Appl. Phys. B 90, 29 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

E. Heumann, S. Bär, K. Rademaker, G. Huber, S. Butterworth, A. Diening, and W. Seelert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 013505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Ohwaki and Y. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 129 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

F. Auzel, Chem. Rev. 104, 139 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cryst. Res. Technol. (1)

L. Sun, H. Yu, Q. Lü, F. Guo, H. Li, W. Cai, Y. Xu, and L. Zhao, Cryst. Res. Technol. 42, 730 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

D. F. de Sousa, F. Batalioto, M. J. V. Bell, S. L. Oliveira, and L. A. O. Nunes, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 3308 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Li, Q. Lü, W. Wu, W. Liu, Y. Yang, and T. Lü, J. Appl. Phys. 102, 113102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

A. Demuro and I. Parker, J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 011002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

J. Milliez, A. Rapaport, M. Bass, A. Cassanho, and H. P. Jenssen, J. Disp. Technol. 2, 307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (1)

Chr. P. Wyss, M. Kehrli, Th. Huber, P. J. Morris, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, A. I. Zagumennyi, Yu. D. Zavartsev, P. A. Studenikin, I. A. Shcherbakov, and A. F. Zerrouk, J. Lumin. 82, 137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Struct. (1)

G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, M. N. Palatnikov, N. V. Sidorov, and V. T. Kalinnikov, J. Mol. Struct. 704, 139 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

E. Nakazawa, in Phosphor Handbook, S.Shionoya, W.M.Yen, eds. (CRC Press, 1999), p. 102.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Green UC fluorescence spectra corresponding to Er 3 + S 3 2 4 I 15 2 4 and H 11 2 2 I 15 2 4 transitions in Er and DyEr. The emission band around 583 nm corresponding to Dy 3 + F 9 2 4 H 13 2 6 transition in DyEr was removed manually. The inset shows the decay curves around 551 nm for Er and DyEr in semilogarithmic representation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Semilogarithmic decay curves of Dy and DyEr around 583 nm . The measurements were carried out with 2 μ s gate time.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Double-logarithmic plot of the pump-power dependence of the UC luminescence bands around 551 and 583 nm after excitation at 800 nm for a Er:Dy: Li Nb O 3 crystal. The numbers denote the slopes of the fitting lines. A femtosecond Z-scan curve of normalized closed aperture is shown in the inset.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simplified energy-level scheme of Er 3 + and Dy 3 + as well as concerned processes proposed to explain Er 3 + enhanced green emission. The energy transfer from Dy 3 + to Er 3 + is denoted by ET. The solid, dotted, and jagged arrows denote radiative transition, CR, and multiphonon relaxation, respectively. Many noninvolved Dy 3 + and Er 3 + energy levels are ignored.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Compositions of the Samples in Melt and Symbols

Equations (4)

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τ m = 0 t I ( t ) d t 0 I ( t ) d t ,
η Dy Er = 1 τ Dy + Er τ Dy ,
1 τ Dy + Er = 1 τ Dy + W Dy Er N Er ,
I UC P pump n ,

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