Abstract

A significant challenge for in vivo imaging is to remove movement artifacts. These movements (typically due to either respiration and cardiac-related movement or surface chemical response) are normally limited to the axial direction, and hence features move in and out of the focal plane. This presents a real problem for high-resolution optically sectioned imaging techniques such as confocal and multiphoton microscopy. To overcome this we have developed an actively locked focus-tracking system based around a deformable membrane mirror. This has a significant advantage over more conventional focus-tracking techniques where the microscope objective is dithered, since the active element is not in direct, or indirect, contact with the sample. To examine the operational limits and to demonstrate possible applications for this form of focus locking, sample oscillation and movement are simulated for two different biological applications. We were able to track focus over a 400μm range (limited by the range of the piezomounted objective) with a rms precision on the focal depth of 0.31μm±0.05μm.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Citation lists with outbound citation links are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Cited By

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Cited by links are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Figures (4)

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Figure files are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Metrics

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Article level metrics are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription