Abstract

We use phase-sensitive detection of spectral hole refilling to demonstrate strong novel intrinsic nonlinear signatures of neuronal activation in hippocampal brain slices. The ability to gain access to this fundamentally new intrinsic contrast with modest power levels suggests a new approach to in vivo neural imaging. We expect that we can extrapolate our method to high spatial and temporal resolution in deep tissue while retaining the noninvasive character.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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2006 (1)

X.-C. Yao and J. S. George, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

A. Grinvald and R. Hildesheim, Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 5, 874 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Dombeck, M. Blanchard-Desce, and W. W. Webb, J. Neurosci. 24, 999 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

C. Stosiek, O. Garaschuk, K. Holthoff, and A. Konnerth, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 7319 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

R. D. Andrew, C. R. Jarvis, and A. S. Obeidat, Methods 18, 185 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Brodeur and S. L. Chin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

K. Svoboda, W. Denk, D. Kleinfeld, and D. W. Tank, Nature 385, 161 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

1973 (1)

L. B. Cohen, Physiol. Rev. 53, 373 (1973).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

X.-C. Yao and J. S. George, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurosci. (1)

D. A. Dombeck, M. Blanchard-Desce, and W. W. Webb, J. Neurosci. 24, 999 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Methods (1)

R. D. Andrew, C. R. Jarvis, and A. S. Obeidat, Methods 18, 185 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (1)

A. Grinvald and R. Hildesheim, Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 5, 874 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

K. Svoboda, W. Denk, D. Kleinfeld, and D. W. Tank, Nature 385, 161 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Physiol. Rev. (1)

L. B. Cohen, Physiol. Rev. 53, 373 (1973).
[PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

C. Stosiek, O. Garaschuk, K. Holthoff, and A. Konnerth, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 7319 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

D. M. Rector, R. M. Harper, and J. S. George, in In Vivo Optical Imaging of Brain Function, R.Frostig, ed. (CRC Press, 2002), pp. 93-112.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Steady-state signal (top) and relative change (bottom) of transmission and SPM signals during glutamate activation for a line scan bisecting the layer of pyramidal CA1 cell bodies. The time evolutions of the lock-in signal at different locations are displayed as insets, where the time points for administration of glutamate solution (G, 1 min ) are marked as bars.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Time evolution of the SPM signal for glutamate activations with and without prior TTX application.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Estimated scattering length (top) and SPM coefficient (bottom) in the neuronal sample during multiple glutamate activations.

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