Abstract

In a conventional coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscope system, we generate a local oscillator CARS field and a sample CARS field successively along a single-beam path. A large gradient of relative spectral phase between the two fields is naturally induced by highly dispersive microscope elements. The resulting spectral interferogram is a form of fast varying sinusoidal fringes modulated by the amplitude and phase of the sample CARS field. With the help of the Hilbert transform on the heterodyne part of the interferogram, both real and imaginary quadratures of the sample CARS spectrum are extracted with an improved signal-to-noise ratio.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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2007 (3)

2006 (3)

2004 (2)

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, and X. S. Xie, Opt. Lett. 29, 2923 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. O. Potma and X. S. Xie, Opt. Photonics News 15, 40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

1999 (1)

X. B. Wang, Z. X. Shen, S. H. Tang, and M. H. Kuok, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 8011 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

Axäng, C.

T. Hellerer, C. Axäng, C. Brackmann, P. Hillertz, M. Pilon, and A. Enejder, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 14658 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bendat, J. S.

J. S. Bendat and A. G. Piersol, Random Data: Analysis and Measurement Procedures, 3rd ed. (Wiley, 2000).

Boppart, S. A.

Brackmann, C.

T. Hellerer, C. Axäng, C. Brackmann, P. Hillertz, M. Pilon, and A. Enejder, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 14658 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buckup, T.

Caster, A. G.

Cheng, J. X.

Enejder, A.

T. Hellerer, C. Axäng, C. Brackmann, P. Hillertz, M. Pilon, and A. Enejder, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 14658 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, C. L.

Fu, Y.

Hahn, J. W.

Hellerer, T.

T. Hellerer, C. Axäng, C. Brackmann, P. Hillertz, M. Pilon, and A. Enejder, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 14658 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillertz, P.

T. Hellerer, C. Axäng, C. Brackmann, P. Hillertz, M. Pilon, and A. Enejder, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 14658 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, G. W.

Jurna, M.

Korterik, J. P.

Kuok, M. H.

X. B. Wang, Z. X. Shen, S. H. Tang, and M. H. Kuok, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 8011 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, E. S.

Leone, S. R.

Lim, S.-H.

Marks, D. L.

Motzkus, M.

Offerhaus, H. L.

Otto, C.

Piersol, A. G.

J. S. Bendat and A. G. Piersol, Random Data: Analysis and Measurement Procedures, 3rd ed. (Wiley, 2000).

Pilon, M.

T. Hellerer, C. Axäng, C. Brackmann, P. Hillertz, M. Pilon, and A. Enejder, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 14658 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Potma, E. O.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, and X. S. Xie, Opt. Lett. 29, 2923 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. O. Potma and X. S. Xie, Opt. Photonics News 15, 40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Z. X.

X. B. Wang, Z. X. Shen, S. H. Tang, and M. H. Kuok, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 8011 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shi, R.

Tang, S. H.

X. B. Wang, Z. X. Shen, S. H. Tang, and M. H. Kuok, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 8011 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vinegoni, C.

Volkmer, A.

von Vacano, B.

Wang, H.

Wang, X. B.

X. B. Wang, Z. X. Shen, S. H. Tang, and M. H. Kuok, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 8011 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X. S.

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

X. B. Wang, Z. X. Shen, S. H. Tang, and M. H. Kuok, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 8011 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Photonics News (1)

E. O. Potma and X. S. Xie, Opt. Photonics News 15, 40 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

T. Hellerer, C. Axäng, C. Brackmann, P. Hillertz, M. Pilon, and A. Enejder, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 14658 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

J. S. Bendat and A. G. Piersol, Random Data: Analysis and Measurement Procedures, 3rd ed. (Wiley, 2000).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical setup for CARS spectral interferometry. DM1,2,3, dichroic mirrors; AT, attenuator; GB, glass ball; SMP, sample; BD, beam dumper.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulation for the CARS spectral interferometry. (a) Interferogram calculated by interfering the LO field with the sample-generated signal. (b) Heterodyne part taken from (a). (c) Real (gray curve) and imaginary (black curve) quadratures of noninterferometric CARS spectra. (d) Same plots for interferometric CARS spectra.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental results of the CARS spectral interferometry of ethanol. (a) Interferogram obtained by interfering the LO field with the ethanol CARS signal. (b) Heterodyne part taken from (a). (c) Ethanol CARS spectrum without the LO field. (d) and (e) Imaginary and real quadrature components of ethanol CARS spectrum retrieved from (b), respectively. (f) Squared sum of (d) and (e). The acquisition time for measurements was 120 ms

Equations (2)

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S CARS ( ω ) E LO ( ω ) 2 + E SMP ( ω ) 2 + 2 E LO ( ω ) E SMP * ( ω ) cos [ Δ k i ( ω ) d i + ϕ ( ω ) ] ,
χ SMP ( 3 ) = 1 ω 01 ( ω p ω s ) i Γ 1 + 1 ω 02 ( ω p ω s ) i Γ 2 .

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