Abstract

Currently Er3+-doped fluorides are being used as upconversion phosphors to enhance the efficiency of Si solar cells, to our knowledge. However, this enhancement is strongly limited owing to the small solar spectral range around 1540nm that is used. We demonstrate that Ho3+-doped oxyfluoride glass ceramics are adequate to enlarge the Si sub-bandgap region around 1170nm that can be transformed into higher-energy photons, showing an upconversion efficiency 2 orders of magnitude higher than the precursor glass. As these materials are transparent at 1540nm, they can be used complementarily with Er3+-doped phosphors for the same purpose.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. Van Roosmalen, and J. Alonso, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, and M. A. Green, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91, 829 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. F. Suyver, J. Grimm, M. K. van Veen, D. Biner, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, J. Lumin. 117, 1 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Strümpel, M. McCann, G. Beaucarne, V. Arkhipov, A. Slaoui, V. Svrcek, C. del Cañizo, and I. Tobias, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91, 238 (2007), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 013505 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Wang and J. Ohwaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3268 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Lahoz, I. R. Martín, J. Mendez-Ramos, and P. Nuñez, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 6180 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. F. Lahoz, J. M. Almenara, U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, I. R. Martín, and V. Lavín, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 053103 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. R. Wehnham, M. Green, M. Watt, and R. Corkish, Applied Photovoltaics (Earthscan, 2006).
  10. M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (2)

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, and M. A. Green, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91, 829 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Strümpel, M. McCann, G. Beaucarne, V. Arkhipov, A. Slaoui, V. Svrcek, C. del Cañizo, and I. Tobias, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91, 238 (2007), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

J. F. Suyver, J. Grimm, M. K. van Veen, D. Biner, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, J. Lumin. 117, 1 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Lahoz, J. M. Almenara, U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, I. R. Martín, and V. Lavín, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 053103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. Van Roosmalen, and J. Alonso, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 013505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

F. Lahoz, I. R. Martín, J. Mendez-Ramos, and P. Nuñez, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 6180 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

Y. Wang and J. Ohwaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3268 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Almenara, J. M.

F. Lahoz, J. M. Almenara, U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, I. R. Martín, and V. Lavín, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 053103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Alonso, J.

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. Van Roosmalen, and J. Alonso, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Andreev, V. M.

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. Van Roosmalen, and J. Alonso, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Arkhipov, V.

C. Strümpel, M. McCann, G. Beaucarne, V. Arkhipov, A. Slaoui, V. Svrcek, C. del Cañizo, and I. Tobias, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91, 238 (2007), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Beaucarne, G.

C. Strümpel, M. McCann, G. Beaucarne, V. Arkhipov, A. Slaoui, V. Svrcek, C. del Cañizo, and I. Tobias, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91, 238 (2007), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Bett, A.

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. Van Roosmalen, and J. Alonso, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Biner, D.

J. F. Suyver, J. Grimm, M. K. van Veen, D. Biner, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, J. Lumin. 117, 1 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Corkish, R.

S. R. Wehnham, M. Green, M. Watt, and R. Corkish, Applied Photovoltaics (Earthscan, 2006).

del Cañizo, C.

C. Strümpel, M. McCann, G. Beaucarne, V. Arkhipov, A. Slaoui, V. Svrcek, C. del Cañizo, and I. Tobias, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91, 238 (2007), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Gamelin, D. R.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Green, M.

S. R. Wehnham, M. Green, M. Watt, and R. Corkish, Applied Photovoltaics (Earthscan, 2006).

Green, M. A.

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, and M. A. Green, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91, 829 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grimm, J.

J. F. Suyver, J. Grimm, M. K. van Veen, D. Biner, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, J. Lumin. 117, 1 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Güdel, H. U.

J. F. Suyver, J. Grimm, M. K. van Veen, D. Biner, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, J. Lumin. 117, 1 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 013505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hehlen, M. P.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jaussaud, C.

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. Van Roosmalen, and J. Alonso, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krämer, K. W.

J. F. Suyver, J. Grimm, M. K. van Veen, D. Biner, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, J. Lumin. 117, 1 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 013505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lahoz, F.

F. Lahoz, J. M. Almenara, U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, I. R. Martín, and V. Lavín, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 053103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Lahoz, I. R. Martín, J. Mendez-Ramos, and P. Nuñez, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 6180 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lavín, V.

F. Lahoz, J. M. Almenara, U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, I. R. Martín, and V. Lavín, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 053103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Luque, A.

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. Van Roosmalen, and J. Alonso, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lüthi, S. R.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Martí, A.

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. Van Roosmalen, and J. Alonso, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martín, I. R.

F. Lahoz, J. M. Almenara, U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, I. R. Martín, and V. Lavín, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 053103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Lahoz, I. R. Martín, J. Mendez-Ramos, and P. Nuñez, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 6180 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCann, M.

C. Strümpel, M. McCann, G. Beaucarne, V. Arkhipov, A. Slaoui, V. Svrcek, C. del Cañizo, and I. Tobias, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91, 238 (2007), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Mendez-Ramos, J.

F. Lahoz, I. R. Martín, J. Mendez-Ramos, and P. Nuñez, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 6180 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nuñez, P.

F. Lahoz, I. R. Martín, J. Mendez-Ramos, and P. Nuñez, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 6180 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohwaki, J.

Y. Wang and J. Ohwaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3268 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pollnau, M.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Richards, B. S.

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, and M. A. Green, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91, 829 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 013505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rodríguez-Mendoza, U. R.

F. Lahoz, J. M. Almenara, U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, I. R. Martín, and V. Lavín, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 053103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shalav, A.

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, and M. A. Green, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91, 829 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 013505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Slaoui, A.

C. Strümpel, M. McCann, G. Beaucarne, V. Arkhipov, A. Slaoui, V. Svrcek, C. del Cañizo, and I. Tobias, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91, 238 (2007), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Strümpel, C.

C. Strümpel, M. McCann, G. Beaucarne, V. Arkhipov, A. Slaoui, V. Svrcek, C. del Cañizo, and I. Tobias, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91, 238 (2007), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Suyver, J. F.

J. F. Suyver, J. Grimm, M. K. van Veen, D. Biner, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, J. Lumin. 117, 1 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Svrcek, V.

C. Strümpel, M. McCann, G. Beaucarne, V. Arkhipov, A. Slaoui, V. Svrcek, C. del Cañizo, and I. Tobias, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91, 238 (2007), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Tobias, I.

C. Strümpel, M. McCann, G. Beaucarne, V. Arkhipov, A. Slaoui, V. Svrcek, C. del Cañizo, and I. Tobias, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91, 238 (2007), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Trupke, T.

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 013505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Van Roosmalen, J. A. M.

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. Van Roosmalen, and J. Alonso, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467 (2005).
[CrossRef]

van Veen, M. K.

J. F. Suyver, J. Grimm, M. K. van Veen, D. Biner, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, J. Lumin. 117, 1 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang and J. Ohwaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3268 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Watt, M.

S. R. Wehnham, M. Green, M. Watt, and R. Corkish, Applied Photovoltaics (Earthscan, 2006).

Wehnham, S. R.

S. R. Wehnham, M. Green, M. Watt, and R. Corkish, Applied Photovoltaics (Earthscan, 2006).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 013505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang and J. Ohwaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3268 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

F. Lahoz, J. M. Almenara, U. R. Rodríguez-Mendoza, I. R. Martín, and V. Lavín, J. Appl. Phys. 99, 053103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

F. Lahoz, I. R. Martín, J. Mendez-Ramos, and P. Nuñez, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 6180 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lumin. (1)

J. F. Suyver, J. Grimm, M. K. van Veen, D. Biner, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, J. Lumin. 117, 1 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (3)

C. Strümpel, M. McCann, G. Beaucarne, V. Arkhipov, A. Slaoui, V. Svrcek, C. del Cañizo, and I. Tobias, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91, 238 (2007), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

A. Luque, A. Martí, A. Bett, V. M. Andreev, C. Jaussaud, J. A. M. Van Roosmalen, and J. Alonso, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87, 467 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, and M. A. Green, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91, 829 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

S. R. Wehnham, M. Green, M. Watt, and R. Corkish, Applied Photovoltaics (Earthscan, 2006).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption coefficient of the I 8 5 I 6 5 transition. The inset shows a simulation of the solar irradiance at the earth surface. Water-absorption bands in the atmosphere are indicated by gray columns, and an arrow shows the spectral region that is absorbed by the Ho 3 + -doped GC.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

UC emission spectra of the (a) GC and (b) precursor glass under excitation at 1170 nm . The main electronic transitions are indicated. The inset shows the emission intensity dependence on the incident pump pulse energy.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Temporal evolution of the UC emission at 650 nm (dashed curve) and 910 nm (solid curve) under pulse excitation at 1170 nm . The inset shows the luminescence decay of the F 5 5 (dashed) and I 5 5 (solid) energy levels under direct excitation of these states.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ho ( I 8 5 ) + h ν 1170 nm Ho ( I 6 5 ) Ho ( I 7 5 ) ,
Ho ( I 7 5 ) + Ho ( I 7 5 ) Ho ( I 8 5 ) + Ho ( I 5 5 ) 2 Ho ( I 8 5 ) + h ν 910 nm ,
Ho ( I 5 5 ) + Ho ( I 7 5 ) Ho ( I 8 5 ) + Ho ( F 5 5 ) 2 Ho ( I 8 5 ) + h ν 650 nm .

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