Abstract

Three kinds of high efficiency phase-type fractal zone plates were rapidly (in tens of minutes) fabricated by femtosecond laser two-photon photopolymerization. Their theoretical maximal diffractive efficiencies of 24.5%, 12.52%, and 18.76% were predicted both by numerical simulation and analytical deduction and were verified by the measured values of 20.5%, 9.1%, and 13%, respectively. The characteristic of multifoci and the improved imaging ability for phase-type fractal lens was also demonstrated. Moreover, to further enhance the diffractive efficiency, a four-level fractal phase lens, whose diffraction efficiency reached as high as 37.6%, was proposed and realized.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. E. Di Fabrizio, F. Romanato, M. Gentili, S. Cabrini, B. Kaulich, J. Susini, and R. Barrett, Nature 401, 895 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Roelkens, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett. 32, 1495 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, and B. Zeldovich, Opt. Lett. 32, 169 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. L. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, Nature 414, 184 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. Saavedra, W. D. Furlan, and J. A. Monsoriu, Opt. Lett. 15, 971 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. A. Davis, L. Ramirez, J. A. Rodrigo Martin-Romo, T. Alieva, and M. L. Calvo, Opt. Lett. 29, 1321 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. D. Furlan, G. Saavedra, and J. A. Monsoriu, Opt. Lett. 32, 2109 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Jeon, V. Malyarchuk, J. A. Rogers, and G. Wiederrecht, Opt. Express 14, 2300 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Q. D. Chen, D. Wu, L. G. Niu, J. Wang, X. F. Lin, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171105 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 786 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Deubel, G. Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, Nature Mater. 3, 444 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, Adv. Mater. 17, 541 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. B. Sun, K. J. Takada, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3173 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. B. Sun and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071122 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, Y. Li, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, Opt. Lett. 29, 1846 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

2006 (1)

2005 (3)

W. L. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, Adv. Mater. 17, 541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Sun and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

2003 (1)

2001 (3)

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, Nature 414, 184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. B. Sun, K. J. Takada, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3173 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 786 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Di Fabrizio, F. Romanato, M. Gentili, S. Cabrini, B. Kaulich, J. Susini, and R. Barrett, Nature 401, 895 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Adelung, R.

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, Nature 414, 184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alieva, T.

Anderson, E. H.

W. L. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Attwood, D. T.

W. L. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baets, R.

Barrett, R.

E. Di Fabrizio, F. Romanato, M. Gentili, S. Cabrini, B. Kaulich, J. Susini, and R. Barrett, Nature 401, 895 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Berndt, R.

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, Nature 414, 184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Busch, K.

M. Deubel, G. Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, Nature Mater. 3, 444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cabrini, S.

E. Di Fabrizio, F. Romanato, M. Gentili, S. Cabrini, B. Kaulich, J. Susini, and R. Barrett, Nature 401, 895 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Calvo, M. L.

Chao, W. L.

W. L. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Q. D.

Q. D. Chen, D. Wu, L. G. Niu, J. Wang, X. F. Lin, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J. A.

Deubel, M.

M. Deubel, G. Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, Nature Mater. 3, 444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Di Fabrizio, E.

E. Di Fabrizio, F. Romanato, M. Gentili, S. Cabrini, B. Kaulich, J. Susini, and R. Barrett, Nature 401, 895 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Freymann, G.

M. Deubel, G. Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, Nature Mater. 3, 444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Furlan, W. D.

Gentili, M.

E. Di Fabrizio, F. Romanato, M. Gentili, S. Cabrini, B. Kaulich, J. Susini, and R. Barrett, Nature 401, 895 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Harm, S.

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, Nature 414, 184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harteneck, B. D.

W. L. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itoh, K.

Jeon, S.

Johnson, R. L.

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, Nature 414, 184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Juodkazis, S.

K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, Adv. Mater. 17, 541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kaulich, B.

E. Di Fabrizio, F. Romanato, M. Gentili, S. Cabrini, B. Kaulich, J. Susini, and R. Barrett, Nature 401, 895 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

H. B. Sun and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Sun, K. J. Takada, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3173 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kipp, L.

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, Nature 414, 184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

Liddle, J. A.

W. L. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, X. F.

Q. D. Chen, D. Wu, L. G. Niu, J. Wang, X. F. Lin, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Malyarchuk, V.

Matsuo, S.

K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, Adv. Mater. 17, 541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 786 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, Adv. Mater. 17, 541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 786 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mizeikis, V.

K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, Adv. Mater. 17, 541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Monsoriu, J. A.

Nishii, J.

Niu, L. G.

Q. D. Chen, D. Wu, L. G. Niu, J. Wang, X. F. Lin, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pereira, S.

M. Deubel, G. Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, Nature Mater. 3, 444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ramirez, L.

Rodrigo Martin-Romo, J. A.

Roelkens, G.

Rogers, J. A.

Romanato, F.

E. Di Fabrizio, F. Romanato, M. Gentili, S. Cabrini, B. Kaulich, J. Susini, and R. Barrett, Nature 401, 895 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Saavedra, G.

Seemann, R.

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, Nature 414, 184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seet, K. K.

K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, Adv. Mater. 17, 541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Serak, S.

Skibowski, M.

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, Nature 414, 184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

M. Deubel, G. Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, Nature Mater. 3, 444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H. B.

Q. D. Chen, D. Wu, L. G. Niu, J. Wang, X. F. Lin, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Sun and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Sun, K. J. Takada, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3173 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 786 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Susini, J.

E. Di Fabrizio, F. Romanato, M. Gentili, S. Cabrini, B. Kaulich, J. Susini, and R. Barrett, Nature 401, 895 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tabiryan, N.

Takada, K.

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takada, K. J.

H. B. Sun, K. J. Takada, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3173 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tanka, T.

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thourhout, D. V.

Wang, J.

Q. D. Chen, D. Wu, L. G. Niu, J. Wang, X. F. Lin, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, W.

Wegener, M.

M. Deubel, G. Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, Nature Mater. 3, 444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wiederrecht, G.

Wu, D.

Q. D. Chen, D. Wu, L. G. Niu, J. Wang, X. F. Lin, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xia, H.

Q. D. Chen, D. Wu, L. G. Niu, J. Wang, X. F. Lin, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

Zeldovich, B.

Adv. Mater. (1)

K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, Adv. Mater. 17, 541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

H. B. Sun, K. J. Takada, and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3173 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Sun and S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071122 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 786 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Q. D. Chen, D. Wu, L. G. Niu, J. Wang, X. F. Lin, H. Xia, and H. B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (4)

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanka, and K. Takada, Nature 412, 697 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Di Fabrizio, F. Romanato, M. Gentili, S. Cabrini, B. Kaulich, J. Susini, and R. Barrett, Nature 401, 895 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, Nature 414, 184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Mater. (1)

M. Deubel, G. Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, Nature Mater. 3, 444 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Micro-phase-type FraZP ( N = 2 , S = 2 ) fabricated by femtosecond laser two-photon photopolymerization. (a) Top-view SEM image. (b) Its locally magnified SEM view. (c) Simulated intensity distribution of phase- (dashed curve) and amplitude-type (solid curve) FraZPs. The inset is AFM surface image of photopolymerized SU-8. (d) Measured focal spot. It is worth mentioning that here (a) and in Fig. 4a, an elevated spot at the center of the FraZP is clearly visible. It is an experimental artifact caused by a failure of synchronization between the optical shutter and the two-galvano-mirror set.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Focusing and imaging characteristics of the FraZP ( N = 2 , S = 3 ) and FZP. (a) and (b) are SEM images of the FraZP and FZP. (c) and (d) are the images of the letters JLU by the FraZP and FZP. (e) and (f) are photographs of foci for the two lenses. The insets correspond to the simulated foci.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Multiple foci of the phase FraZP ( N = 3 , S = 2 ). (a) SEM image of the entire FraZP. (b) Its locally magnified view. (c) Simulated intensity distribution along the optical axis. The six insets are the measured multifoci.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Multilevel fractal diffractive phase lenses. (a) Top-view SEM photograph of four-level phase-type fractal diffractive lenses. (b) Its locally magnified SEM view. (c) Photograph of the main focal spot.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

p ( N , S ) = 2 ( 2 N 1 ) S .
η ( N , S , n ) = ( ( 2 N S 1 ) ( 2 N 1 ) S ) 2 sinc 2 ( 1 n ) .
d = λ n ( n S U 8 1 ) .

Metrics