Abstract

Phase-locked terahertz transients with peak electric fields of 108MVcm and center frequencies continuously tunable from 10  to  72THz are generated via difference-frequency mixing of two parametrically amplified pulse trains from a single white-light seed. Free space electro-optic sampling with 8fs gating pulses from a two-branch Er:fiber laser allows us to monitor all transients directly in the time domain. We identify extreme terahertz nonlinearities in the detector crystal with subcycle resolution.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2008

2007

2004

K. Liu, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 863 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Fuji, A. Apolonski, and F. Krausz, Opt. Lett. 29, 632 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

2002

A. Baltuska, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 133901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, Nature Mater. 1, 26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Carr, M. C. Martin, W. R. McKinney, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, and G. P. Williams, Nature 420, 153 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, Nature 414, 286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1993

Abstreiter, G.

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, Nature 414, 286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adler, F.

Akai, R.

M. Ashida, R. Akai, H. Shimosato, I. Katayama, K. Miyamoto, and H. Ito, “Electric field detection of near-infrared light using photoconductive sampling,” in Ultrafast Phenomena XVI, Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag) (to be published).

Apolonski, A.

Ashida, M.

M. Ashida, R. Akai, H. Shimosato, I. Katayama, K. Miyamoto, and H. Ito, “Electric field detection of near-infrared light using photoconductive sampling,” in Ultrafast Phenomena XVI, Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag) (to be published).

Baltuska, A.

A. Baltuska, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 133901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartal, B.

Baum, P.

Bichler, M.

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, Nature 414, 286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brida, A.

Brodschelm, A.

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, Nature 414, 286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Calligaro, M.

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, Nature 449, 698 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carr, G. L.

G. L. Carr, M. C. Martin, W. R. McKinney, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, and G. P. Williams, Nature 420, 153 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerullo, G.

Chemla, D. S.

Christov, I.

H. Kapteyn, O. Cohen, I. Christov, and M. Murnane, Science 317, 775 (2007), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cirmi, G.

Cohen, O.

H. Kapteyn, O. Cohen, I. Christov, and M. Murnane, Science 317, 775 (2007), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Darmo, J.

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, Nature 449, 698 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Silvestri, S.

Dhillon, S. S.

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, Nature 449, 698 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elsaesser, T.

Ferguson, B.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, Nature Mater. 1, 26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fuji, T.

T. Fuji, A. Apolonski, and F. Krausz, Opt. Lett. 29, 632 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuska, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 133901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haus, H. A.

Hebling, J.

Hoffmann, M. C.

Huber, R.

F. Adler, A. Sell, F. Sotier, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, Opt. Lett. 32, 3504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Zentgraf, R. Huber, N. C. Nielsen, D. S. Chemla, and R. A. Kaindl, Opt. Express 15, 5775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, Nature 414, 286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Sell, G. Krauss, R. Scheu, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “8-fs pulses from a compact Er:fiber system: quantitative modeling and experimental implementation” (submitted to Opt. Express).

Ippen, E. P.

Ito, H.

M. Ashida, R. Akai, H. Shimosato, I. Katayama, K. Miyamoto, and H. Ito, “Electric field detection of near-infrared light using photoconductive sampling,” in Ultrafast Phenomena XVI, Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag) (to be published).

Jordan, K.

G. L. Carr, M. C. Martin, W. R. McKinney, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, and G. P. Williams, Nature 420, 153 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaindl, R. A.

Kapteyn, H.

H. Kapteyn, O. Cohen, I. Christov, and M. Murnane, Science 317, 775 (2007), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katayama, I.

M. Ashida, R. Akai, H. Shimosato, I. Katayama, K. Miyamoto, and H. Ito, “Electric field detection of near-infrared light using photoconductive sampling,” in Ultrafast Phenomena XVI, Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag) (to be published).

Kobayashi, T.

A. Baltuska, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 133901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krauss, G.

A. Sell, G. Krauss, R. Scheu, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “8-fs pulses from a compact Er:fiber system: quantitative modeling and experimental implementation” (submitted to Opt. Express).

Krausz, F.

Kröll, J.

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, Nature 449, 698 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kübler, C.

C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leitenstorfer, A.

F. Adler, A. Sell, F. Sotier, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, Opt. Lett. 32, 3504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Tauser, A. Leitenstorfer, and W. Zinth, Opt. Express 11, 594 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, Nature 414, 286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Sell, G. Krauss, R. Scheu, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “8-fs pulses from a compact Er:fiber system: quantitative modeling and experimental implementation” (submitted to Opt. Express).

Liu, K.

K. Liu, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 863 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lochbrunner, S.

Manzoni, D.

Marangoni, M.

Marcadet, X.

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, Nature 449, 698 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, M. C.

G. L. Carr, M. C. Martin, W. R. McKinney, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, and G. P. Williams, Nature 420, 153 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McKinney, W. R.

G. L. Carr, M. C. Martin, W. R. McKinney, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, and G. P. Williams, Nature 420, 153 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyamoto, K.

M. Ashida, R. Akai, H. Shimosato, I. Katayama, K. Miyamoto, and H. Ito, “Electric field detection of near-infrared light using photoconductive sampling,” in Ultrafast Phenomena XVI, Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag) (to be published).

Murnane, M.

H. Kapteyn, O. Cohen, I. Christov, and M. Murnane, Science 317, 775 (2007), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neil, G. R.

G. L. Carr, M. C. Martin, W. R. McKinney, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, and G. P. Williams, Nature 420, 153 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, K. A.

Nelson, L. E.

Nielsen, N. C.

Piel, J.

Reimann, K.

Riedle, E.

Scheu, R.

A. Sell, G. Krauss, R. Scheu, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “8-fs pulses from a compact Er:fiber system: quantitative modeling and experimental implementation” (submitted to Opt. Express).

Sell, A.

F. Adler, A. Sell, F. Sotier, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, Opt. Lett. 32, 3504 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sell, G. Krauss, R. Scheu, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “8-fs pulses from a compact Er:fiber system: quantitative modeling and experimental implementation” (submitted to Opt. Express).

Shimosato, H.

M. Ashida, R. Akai, H. Shimosato, I. Katayama, K. Miyamoto, and H. Ito, “Electric field detection of near-infrared light using photoconductive sampling,” in Ultrafast Phenomena XVI, Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag) (to be published).

Sirtori, C.

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, Nature 449, 698 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, R. P.

Sotier, F.

Tamura, K.

Tauser, F.

F. Tauser, A. Leitenstorfer, and W. Zinth, Opt. Express 11, 594 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, Nature 414, 286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tübel, S.

C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Unterrainer, K.

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, Nature 449, 698 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiner, A. M.

Williams, G. P.

G. L. Carr, M. C. Martin, W. R. McKinney, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, and G. P. Williams, Nature 420, 153 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woerner, M.

Xu, J.

K. Liu, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 863 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, K.-L.

Zentgraf, T.

Zhang, X.-C.

K. Liu, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 863 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, Nature Mater. 1, 26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zinth, W.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Liu, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 863 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nature

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, Nature 414, 286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kröll, J. Darmo, S. S. Dhillon, X. Marcadet, M. Calligaro, C. Sirtori, and K. Unterrainer, Nature 449, 698 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. L. Carr, M. C. Martin, W. R. McKinney, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, and G. P. Williams, Nature 420, 153 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Mater.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, Nature Mater. 1, 26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. Baltuska, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 133901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

H. Kapteyn, O. Cohen, I. Christov, and M. Murnane, Science 317, 775 (2007), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

A. Sell, G. Krauss, R. Scheu, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “8-fs pulses from a compact Er:fiber system: quantitative modeling and experimental implementation” (submitted to Opt. Express).

M. Ashida, R. Akai, H. Shimosato, I. Katayama, K. Miyamoto, and H. Ito, “Electric field detection of near-infrared light using photoconductive sampling,” in Ultrafast Phenomena XVI, Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag) (to be published).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Setup of the hybrid laser system. EDFA, Er:fiber amplifier; SHG, second-harmonic generation in periodically poled Li Nb O 3 ; CONT, continuum generation in a nonlinear bulk silica fiber; S, sapphire window; WL, white-light seed for OPA1 and OPA2; DFG, noncollinear difference frequency mixing of both OPA outputs; EOS, electro-optic sampling with balanced detection; F, intermediate THz focus; Si, silicon beam splitter; D, 90 μ m GaSe detector crystal; λ 2 , half-wave plate; WP, Wollaston prism.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) THz transient generated by DFG in a 140 - μ m -thick GaSe crystal as detected in a GaSe sensor of a thickness of 90 μ m (solid curve). The reference point T = 0 fs is defined by the maximum of the THz pulse envelope. The CEP is controlled by tuning the delay time Δ t (dashed curve). Inset, THz transient from a 1 - mm -thick GaSe crystal. (b) Spectral amplitude and (c) phase of the transient given in (a).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Real-time transients and (b) normalized amplitude spectra for widely tuned center frequencies, generated by DFG of the signal waves of both OPAs. Emitter: GaSe (length: 140 μ m , all solid curves) or Ag Ga S 2 (length: 800 μ m , broken curve).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Extremely nonlinear electro-optic sampling of transients with increasing peak fields (indicated next to each transient) in a 90 - μ m -thick GaSe crystal. (b) Field dependence of the unipolar (squares, frequencies below 10 THz ) and the rapidly oscillating components (circles, frequencies above 10 THz ) in (a).

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