Abstract

We have developed a femtosecond magneto-optical imaging system that allows measurements of permanent magnetic effects that are initiated by a single excitation pulse. The system combines a subpicosecond temporal resolution and a high spatial resolution. We demonstrate the system in an experiment that studies the laser-induced magnetization reversal in ferromagnetic thin films.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Beaurepaire, J. C. Merle, A. Daunois, and J.-Y. Bigot, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4250 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. Koopmans, M. van Kampen, J. T. Kohlhepp, and W. J. M de Jonge, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 844 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Hohlfeld, E. Matthias, R. Knorren, and K. H. Bennemann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 960 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Cheskis, A. Porat, L. Szapiro, O. Potashnik, and S. Bar-Ad, Phys. Rev. B 72, 014437 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. Beaurepaire, M. Maret, V. Halté, J. C. Merle, A. Daunois, and J.-Y. Bigot, Phys. Rev. B 58, 12134 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Guidoni, E. Beaurepaire, and J.-Y. Bigot, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 017401 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Hirsher, E. E. Marinero, and T. Egami, Phys. Status Solidi A 154, 755 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Laraoui, M. Albrecht, and J.-Y. Bigot, Opt. Lett. 32, 936 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. B. C. Daly, N. C. R. Holme, T. Buma, C. Branciard, T. B. Norris, D. M. Tennant, J. A. Taylor, J. E. Bower, and S. Pau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5180 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Hohlfeld, Th. Gerrits, M. Bilderbeek, Th. Rasing, H. Awano, and N. Ohta, Phys. Rev. B 65, 012413 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2007

2005

D. Cheskis, A. Porat, L. Szapiro, O. Potashnik, and S. Bar-Ad, Phys. Rev. B 72, 014437 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

B. C. Daly, N. C. R. Holme, T. Buma, C. Branciard, T. B. Norris, D. M. Tennant, J. A. Taylor, J. E. Bower, and S. Pau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5180 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

L. Guidoni, E. Beaurepaire, and J.-Y. Bigot, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 017401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

J. Hohlfeld, Th. Gerrits, M. Bilderbeek, Th. Rasing, H. Awano, and N. Ohta, Phys. Rev. B 65, 012413 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

B. Koopmans, M. van Kampen, J. T. Kohlhepp, and W. J. M de Jonge, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 844 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

E. Beaurepaire, M. Maret, V. Halté, J. C. Merle, A. Daunois, and J.-Y. Bigot, Phys. Rev. B 58, 12134 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

J. Hohlfeld, E. Matthias, R. Knorren, and K. H. Bennemann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 960 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. Hirsher, E. E. Marinero, and T. Egami, Phys. Status Solidi A 154, 755 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

E. Beaurepaire, J. C. Merle, A. Daunois, and J.-Y. Bigot, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4250 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Albrecht, M.

Awano, H.

J. Hohlfeld, Th. Gerrits, M. Bilderbeek, Th. Rasing, H. Awano, and N. Ohta, Phys. Rev. B 65, 012413 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bar-Ad, S.

D. Cheskis, A. Porat, L. Szapiro, O. Potashnik, and S. Bar-Ad, Phys. Rev. B 72, 014437 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Beaurepaire, E.

L. Guidoni, E. Beaurepaire, and J.-Y. Bigot, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 017401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Beaurepaire, M. Maret, V. Halté, J. C. Merle, A. Daunois, and J.-Y. Bigot, Phys. Rev. B 58, 12134 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Beaurepaire, J. C. Merle, A. Daunois, and J.-Y. Bigot, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4250 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bennemann, K. H.

J. Hohlfeld, E. Matthias, R. Knorren, and K. H. Bennemann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 960 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bigot, J.-Y.

A. Laraoui, M. Albrecht, and J.-Y. Bigot, Opt. Lett. 32, 936 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Guidoni, E. Beaurepaire, and J.-Y. Bigot, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 017401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Beaurepaire, M. Maret, V. Halté, J. C. Merle, A. Daunois, and J.-Y. Bigot, Phys. Rev. B 58, 12134 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Beaurepaire, J. C. Merle, A. Daunois, and J.-Y. Bigot, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4250 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bilderbeek, M.

J. Hohlfeld, Th. Gerrits, M. Bilderbeek, Th. Rasing, H. Awano, and N. Ohta, Phys. Rev. B 65, 012413 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bower, J. E.

B. C. Daly, N. C. R. Holme, T. Buma, C. Branciard, T. B. Norris, D. M. Tennant, J. A. Taylor, J. E. Bower, and S. Pau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5180 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Branciard, C.

B. C. Daly, N. C. R. Holme, T. Buma, C. Branciard, T. B. Norris, D. M. Tennant, J. A. Taylor, J. E. Bower, and S. Pau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5180 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Buma, T.

B. C. Daly, N. C. R. Holme, T. Buma, C. Branciard, T. B. Norris, D. M. Tennant, J. A. Taylor, J. E. Bower, and S. Pau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5180 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cheskis, D.

D. Cheskis, A. Porat, L. Szapiro, O. Potashnik, and S. Bar-Ad, Phys. Rev. B 72, 014437 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Daly, B. C.

B. C. Daly, N. C. R. Holme, T. Buma, C. Branciard, T. B. Norris, D. M. Tennant, J. A. Taylor, J. E. Bower, and S. Pau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5180 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Daunois, A.

E. Beaurepaire, M. Maret, V. Halté, J. C. Merle, A. Daunois, and J.-Y. Bigot, Phys. Rev. B 58, 12134 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Beaurepaire, J. C. Merle, A. Daunois, and J.-Y. Bigot, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4250 (1995).
[CrossRef]

de Jonge, W. J. M

B. Koopmans, M. van Kampen, J. T. Kohlhepp, and W. J. M de Jonge, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 844 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Egami, T.

M. Hirsher, E. E. Marinero, and T. Egami, Phys. Status Solidi A 154, 755 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gerrits, Th.

J. Hohlfeld, Th. Gerrits, M. Bilderbeek, Th. Rasing, H. Awano, and N. Ohta, Phys. Rev. B 65, 012413 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Guidoni, L.

L. Guidoni, E. Beaurepaire, and J.-Y. Bigot, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 017401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halté, V.

E. Beaurepaire, M. Maret, V. Halté, J. C. Merle, A. Daunois, and J.-Y. Bigot, Phys. Rev. B 58, 12134 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hirsher, M.

M. Hirsher, E. E. Marinero, and T. Egami, Phys. Status Solidi A 154, 755 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hohlfeld, J.

J. Hohlfeld, Th. Gerrits, M. Bilderbeek, Th. Rasing, H. Awano, and N. Ohta, Phys. Rev. B 65, 012413 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Hohlfeld, E. Matthias, R. Knorren, and K. H. Bennemann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 960 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Holme, N. C. R.

B. C. Daly, N. C. R. Holme, T. Buma, C. Branciard, T. B. Norris, D. M. Tennant, J. A. Taylor, J. E. Bower, and S. Pau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5180 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Knorren, R.

J. Hohlfeld, E. Matthias, R. Knorren, and K. H. Bennemann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 960 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kohlhepp, J. T.

B. Koopmans, M. van Kampen, J. T. Kohlhepp, and W. J. M de Jonge, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 844 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koopmans, B.

B. Koopmans, M. van Kampen, J. T. Kohlhepp, and W. J. M de Jonge, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 844 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laraoui, A.

Maret, M.

E. Beaurepaire, M. Maret, V. Halté, J. C. Merle, A. Daunois, and J.-Y. Bigot, Phys. Rev. B 58, 12134 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marinero, E. E.

M. Hirsher, E. E. Marinero, and T. Egami, Phys. Status Solidi A 154, 755 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Matthias, E.

J. Hohlfeld, E. Matthias, R. Knorren, and K. H. Bennemann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 960 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Merle, J. C.

E. Beaurepaire, M. Maret, V. Halté, J. C. Merle, A. Daunois, and J.-Y. Bigot, Phys. Rev. B 58, 12134 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Beaurepaire, J. C. Merle, A. Daunois, and J.-Y. Bigot, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4250 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Norris, T. B.

B. C. Daly, N. C. R. Holme, T. Buma, C. Branciard, T. B. Norris, D. M. Tennant, J. A. Taylor, J. E. Bower, and S. Pau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5180 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ohta, N.

J. Hohlfeld, Th. Gerrits, M. Bilderbeek, Th. Rasing, H. Awano, and N. Ohta, Phys. Rev. B 65, 012413 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pau, S.

B. C. Daly, N. C. R. Holme, T. Buma, C. Branciard, T. B. Norris, D. M. Tennant, J. A. Taylor, J. E. Bower, and S. Pau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5180 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Porat, A.

D. Cheskis, A. Porat, L. Szapiro, O. Potashnik, and S. Bar-Ad, Phys. Rev. B 72, 014437 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Potashnik, O.

D. Cheskis, A. Porat, L. Szapiro, O. Potashnik, and S. Bar-Ad, Phys. Rev. B 72, 014437 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rasing, Th.

J. Hohlfeld, Th. Gerrits, M. Bilderbeek, Th. Rasing, H. Awano, and N. Ohta, Phys. Rev. B 65, 012413 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Szapiro, L.

D. Cheskis, A. Porat, L. Szapiro, O. Potashnik, and S. Bar-Ad, Phys. Rev. B 72, 014437 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. A.

B. C. Daly, N. C. R. Holme, T. Buma, C. Branciard, T. B. Norris, D. M. Tennant, J. A. Taylor, J. E. Bower, and S. Pau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5180 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tennant, D. M.

B. C. Daly, N. C. R. Holme, T. Buma, C. Branciard, T. B. Norris, D. M. Tennant, J. A. Taylor, J. E. Bower, and S. Pau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5180 (2004).
[CrossRef]

van Kampen, M.

B. Koopmans, M. van Kampen, J. T. Kohlhepp, and W. J. M de Jonge, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 844 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

B. C. Daly, N. C. R. Holme, T. Buma, C. Branciard, T. B. Norris, D. M. Tennant, J. A. Taylor, J. E. Bower, and S. Pau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5180 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

J. Hohlfeld, Th. Gerrits, M. Bilderbeek, Th. Rasing, H. Awano, and N. Ohta, Phys. Rev. B 65, 012413 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Cheskis, A. Porat, L. Szapiro, O. Potashnik, and S. Bar-Ad, Phys. Rev. B 72, 014437 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Beaurepaire, M. Maret, V. Halté, J. C. Merle, A. Daunois, and J.-Y. Bigot, Phys. Rev. B 58, 12134 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

L. Guidoni, E. Beaurepaire, and J.-Y. Bigot, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 017401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Beaurepaire, J. C. Merle, A. Daunois, and J.-Y. Bigot, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4250 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Koopmans, M. van Kampen, J. T. Kohlhepp, and W. J. M de Jonge, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 844 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hohlfeld, E. Matthias, R. Knorren, and K. H. Bennemann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 960 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A

M. Hirsher, E. E. Marinero, and T. Egami, Phys. Status Solidi A 154, 755 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Time-resolved MOKE microscope described in the text. “1” and “2” denote the alternative shutter positions for fast (pump–probe) and slow (timed exposure) measurements, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Slow spontaneous magnetization reversal in a Permalloy sample at a field of H 0 1.2 Oe . The elapsed times from the moment the field was set are indicated.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Pump–probe measurements at different time delays, at zero field and at H 0 , with a pump fluence of 48 mJ cm 2 . Permanent reversal is obtained only at H 0 (in these measurements an 0.2 cm diameter iris was used, yielding a resolution of 50 μ m ); (b) slow measurements carried out in the timed exposure configuration. The elapsed times from the moment of excitation by a single pump pulse are indicated. Spontaneous reversal can be seen on the right of the images.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Nonlocal effects of a single pump pulse at H 0 . (a) is a reference measurement without pump excitation. (b) and (c) show the effects of excitation in soft and hard parts of the sample, respectively. In (b) the reversal quickly spreads out of the excitation spot. In (c) the pattern of the domain wall movement is affected (compare to Fig. 2): the spontaneous reversal spreads toward the pump-induced reversal but is delayed in the area at the top of the images (indicated by a circle). The elapsed times from the moment of excitation are indicated.

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