Abstract

Spatially resolved reflectance measurements can be used to characterize the depth-resolved optical properties of superficial tissues. However, until now, rapid acquisition of multiwavelength data has been hindered by multiplexing problems. We report on a novel multiwavelength laminar optical tomography system capable of acquiring data from multiple source-detector separations at three wavelengths simultaneously. Such data can allow in vivo depth-resolved spectroscopic imaging of absorbers, such as oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin, or of multiple fluorophores, that is unaffected by motion artifacts at frame rates exceeding 100Hz. The system design and phantom validation studies are presented.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. M. C. Hillman, D. A. Boas, A. M. Dale, and A. K. Dunn, Opt. Lett. 29, 1650 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. E. M. C. Hillman, O. Bernus, E. Pease, M. B. Bouchard, and A. Pertsov, Opt. Express 15, 17827 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. M. C. Hillman, A. Devor, M. B. Bouchard, A. K. Dunn, G. W. Krauss, J. Skoch, B. J. Bacskai, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, Neuroimage 35, 89 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Lualdi, A. Colombo, M. Carrara, L. Scienza, S. Tomatis, and R. Marchesini, Phys. Med. Biol. 51, N429 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, and B. J. Tromberg, Opt. Lett. 30, 1354 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. F. Bevilacqua, D. Piguet, P. Marguett, J. D. Gross, B. J. Tromberg, and C. Depeursinge, Appl. Opt. 22, 4939 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (2)

E. M. C. Hillman, A. Devor, M. B. Bouchard, A. K. Dunn, G. W. Krauss, J. Skoch, B. J. Bacskai, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, Neuroimage 35, 89 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. C. Hillman, O. Bernus, E. Pease, M. B. Bouchard, and A. Pertsov, Opt. Express 15, 17827 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

M. Lualdi, A. Colombo, M. Carrara, L. Scienza, S. Tomatis, and R. Marchesini, Phys. Med. Biol. 51, N429 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

F. Bevilacqua, D. Piguet, P. Marguett, J. D. Gross, B. J. Tromberg, and C. Depeursinge, Appl. Opt. 22, 4939 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bacskai, B. J.

E. M. C. Hillman, A. Devor, M. B. Bouchard, A. K. Dunn, G. W. Krauss, J. Skoch, B. J. Bacskai, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, Neuroimage 35, 89 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernus, O.

Bevilacqua, F.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, and B. J. Tromberg, Opt. Lett. 30, 1354 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Bevilacqua, D. Piguet, P. Marguett, J. D. Gross, B. J. Tromberg, and C. Depeursinge, Appl. Opt. 22, 4939 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boas, D. A.

E. M. C. Hillman, A. Devor, M. B. Bouchard, A. K. Dunn, G. W. Krauss, J. Skoch, B. J. Bacskai, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, Neuroimage 35, 89 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. C. Hillman, D. A. Boas, A. M. Dale, and A. K. Dunn, Opt. Lett. 29, 1650 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Dunn and D. A. Boas, Opt. Lett. 25, 1777 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bouchard, M. B.

E. M. C. Hillman, A. Devor, M. B. Bouchard, A. K. Dunn, G. W. Krauss, J. Skoch, B. J. Bacskai, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, Neuroimage 35, 89 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. C. Hillman, O. Bernus, E. Pease, M. B. Bouchard, and A. Pertsov, Opt. Express 15, 17827 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Carrara, M.

M. Lualdi, A. Colombo, M. Carrara, L. Scienza, S. Tomatis, and R. Marchesini, Phys. Med. Biol. 51, N429 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colombo, A.

M. Lualdi, A. Colombo, M. Carrara, L. Scienza, S. Tomatis, and R. Marchesini, Phys. Med. Biol. 51, N429 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cuccia, D. J.

Dale, A. M.

E. M. C. Hillman, A. Devor, M. B. Bouchard, A. K. Dunn, G. W. Krauss, J. Skoch, B. J. Bacskai, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, Neuroimage 35, 89 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. C. Hillman, D. A. Boas, A. M. Dale, and A. K. Dunn, Opt. Lett. 29, 1650 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Depeursinge, C.

F. Bevilacqua, D. Piguet, P. Marguett, J. D. Gross, B. J. Tromberg, and C. Depeursinge, Appl. Opt. 22, 4939 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Devor, A.

E. M. C. Hillman, A. Devor, M. B. Bouchard, A. K. Dunn, G. W. Krauss, J. Skoch, B. J. Bacskai, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, Neuroimage 35, 89 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunn, A. K.

E. M. C. Hillman, A. Devor, M. B. Bouchard, A. K. Dunn, G. W. Krauss, J. Skoch, B. J. Bacskai, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, Neuroimage 35, 89 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. C. Hillman, D. A. Boas, A. M. Dale, and A. K. Dunn, Opt. Lett. 29, 1650 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Dunn and D. A. Boas, Opt. Lett. 25, 1777 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Durkin, A. J.

Gross, J. D.

F. Bevilacqua, D. Piguet, P. Marguett, J. D. Gross, B. J. Tromberg, and C. Depeursinge, Appl. Opt. 22, 4939 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hillman, E. M. C.

Krauss, G. W.

E. M. C. Hillman, A. Devor, M. B. Bouchard, A. K. Dunn, G. W. Krauss, J. Skoch, B. J. Bacskai, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, Neuroimage 35, 89 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lualdi, M.

M. Lualdi, A. Colombo, M. Carrara, L. Scienza, S. Tomatis, and R. Marchesini, Phys. Med. Biol. 51, N429 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marchesini, R.

M. Lualdi, A. Colombo, M. Carrara, L. Scienza, S. Tomatis, and R. Marchesini, Phys. Med. Biol. 51, N429 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marguett, P.

F. Bevilacqua, D. Piguet, P. Marguett, J. D. Gross, B. J. Tromberg, and C. Depeursinge, Appl. Opt. 22, 4939 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pease, E.

Pertsov, A.

Piguet, D.

F. Bevilacqua, D. Piguet, P. Marguett, J. D. Gross, B. J. Tromberg, and C. Depeursinge, Appl. Opt. 22, 4939 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Scienza, L.

M. Lualdi, A. Colombo, M. Carrara, L. Scienza, S. Tomatis, and R. Marchesini, Phys. Med. Biol. 51, N429 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skoch, J.

E. M. C. Hillman, A. Devor, M. B. Bouchard, A. K. Dunn, G. W. Krauss, J. Skoch, B. J. Bacskai, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, Neuroimage 35, 89 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomatis, S.

M. Lualdi, A. Colombo, M. Carrara, L. Scienza, S. Tomatis, and R. Marchesini, Phys. Med. Biol. 51, N429 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, and B. J. Tromberg, Opt. Lett. 30, 1354 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Bevilacqua, D. Piguet, P. Marguett, J. D. Gross, B. J. Tromberg, and C. Depeursinge, Appl. Opt. 22, 4939 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

F. Bevilacqua, D. Piguet, P. Marguett, J. D. Gross, B. J. Tromberg, and C. Depeursinge, Appl. Opt. 22, 4939 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Neuroimage (1)

E. M. C. Hillman, A. Devor, M. B. Bouchard, A. K. Dunn, G. W. Krauss, J. Skoch, B. J. Bacskai, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, Neuroimage 35, 89 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

M. Lualdi, A. Colombo, M. Carrara, L. Scienza, S. Tomatis, and R. Marchesini, Phys. Med. Biol. 51, N429 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of LOT system. Collinearly aligned laser light is raster scanned over the tissue surface. Galvanometer mirrors descan the returning light. Multiwavelength light is separated using a diffraction grating and focused onto a 2D PMT array.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Color Phantom. Top left, schematic of agarose gel-based phantom with embedded colored transparency film absorbers. Top right, simultaneously acquired raw LOT multiwavelength data individually and merged to form an RGB image. Middle row, RGB-merged LOT data for three S-D offsets; deeper absorbers become more apparent at wider S-D offsets. Bottom row, Monte Carlo sensitivity functions for the same three S-D separations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Agarose gel based phantom with three absorbers embedded at different depths. Plot shows the fractional change in measurement Δ M M o for LOT data (solid curves) and Monte Carlo simulation data (dotted curves) for each absorber depth.

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