Abstract

We report on a soft x-ray microscope using a gas-discharge plasma with pseudo spark-like electrode geometry as a light source. The source produces a radiant intensity of 4×1013  photons(sr  pulse) for the 2.88nm emission line of helium-like nitrogen. At a demonstrated 1kHz repetition rate a brilliance of 4.3×109  photons(μm2srs) is obtained for the 2.88nm line. Ray-tracing simulations show that, employing an adequate grazing incidence collector, a photon flux of 1×107  photons(μm2s) can be achieved with the current source. The applicability of the presented pinch plasma concept to soft x-ray microscopy is demonstrated in a proof-of-principle experiment.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Glišović, J. Thieme, P. Guttmann, and T. Salditt, Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 40, 87 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Rothe, M. A. Denecke, and K. Dardenne, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 231, 91 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. Guttmann, S. Rudolph, S. Heim, S. Rehbein, M. A. Meyer, G. Schneider, and E. Zschech, in Proceedings of the 8th International Conferance on X-ray Microscopy, S.Aoki, Y.Kagoshima, and Y.Suzuki, eds., IPAP Conference Series 7 (Institute of Pure and Applied Physics, 2006), pp. 243-245.
  4. W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. Xiao, P. R. Chipman, A. J. Battisti, V. D. Bowman, P. Renesto, D. Raoult, and M. G. Rossmann, Mol. Biol. 353, 493 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Guttmann, B. Niemann, S. Rehbein, C. Knöchel, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, J. Phys. IV 104, 91 (2003).
  7. P. Guttmann, B. Niemann, J. Thieme, U. Wiesemann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, in X-ray Microscopy, Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference, W.Meyer-Ilse, T.Warwick, and D.Attwood, eds., AIP Conference Proceeding 507(American Institute of Physics, 2000), pp. 411-415.
  8. P. A. C. Jansson, U. Vogt, and H. M. Hertz, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043503 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Pankert, K. Bergmann, R. Wester, J. Klein, W. Neff, O. Rosier, S. Seiwert, C. Smith, S. Probst, D. Vaudrevange, G. Siemons, R. Apetz, J. Jonkers, M. Loeken, G. Derra, T. Krücken, and P. Zink, in EUV Sources for Lithography, V.Bakshi, ed. (SPIE, 2005), pp. 395-411.
  10. K. Bergmann, F. Küpper, and M. Benk, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 123304 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

K. Bergmann, F. Küpper, and M. Benk, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 123304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

A. Glišović, J. Thieme, P. Guttmann, and T. Salditt, Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 40, 87 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Xiao, P. R. Chipman, A. J. Battisti, V. D. Bowman, P. Renesto, D. Raoult, and M. G. Rossmann, Mol. Biol. 353, 493 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. A. C. Jansson, U. Vogt, and H. M. Hertz, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

P. Guttmann, B. Niemann, S. Rehbein, C. Knöchel, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, J. Phys. IV 104, 91 (2003).

2000 (1)

J. Rothe, M. A. Denecke, and K. Dardenne, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 231, 91 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, E. H.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Apetz, R.

J. Pankert, K. Bergmann, R. Wester, J. Klein, W. Neff, O. Rosier, S. Seiwert, C. Smith, S. Probst, D. Vaudrevange, G. Siemons, R. Apetz, J. Jonkers, M. Loeken, G. Derra, T. Krücken, and P. Zink, in EUV Sources for Lithography, V.Bakshi, ed. (SPIE, 2005), pp. 395-411.

Attwood, D. T.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Battisti, A. J.

C. Xiao, P. R. Chipman, A. J. Battisti, V. D. Bowman, P. Renesto, D. Raoult, and M. G. Rossmann, Mol. Biol. 353, 493 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Benk, M.

K. Bergmann, F. Küpper, and M. Benk, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 123304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bergmann, K.

K. Bergmann, F. Küpper, and M. Benk, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 123304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Pankert, K. Bergmann, R. Wester, J. Klein, W. Neff, O. Rosier, S. Seiwert, C. Smith, S. Probst, D. Vaudrevange, G. Siemons, R. Apetz, J. Jonkers, M. Loeken, G. Derra, T. Krücken, and P. Zink, in EUV Sources for Lithography, V.Bakshi, ed. (SPIE, 2005), pp. 395-411.

Bowman, V. D.

C. Xiao, P. R. Chipman, A. J. Battisti, V. D. Bowman, P. Renesto, D. Raoult, and M. G. Rossmann, Mol. Biol. 353, 493 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chao, W.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chipman, P. R.

C. Xiao, P. R. Chipman, A. J. Battisti, V. D. Bowman, P. Renesto, D. Raoult, and M. G. Rossmann, Mol. Biol. 353, 493 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dardenne, K.

J. Rothe, M. A. Denecke, and K. Dardenne, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 231, 91 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denecke, M. A.

J. Rothe, M. A. Denecke, and K. Dardenne, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 231, 91 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Derra, G.

J. Pankert, K. Bergmann, R. Wester, J. Klein, W. Neff, O. Rosier, S. Seiwert, C. Smith, S. Probst, D. Vaudrevange, G. Siemons, R. Apetz, J. Jonkers, M. Loeken, G. Derra, T. Krücken, and P. Zink, in EUV Sources for Lithography, V.Bakshi, ed. (SPIE, 2005), pp. 395-411.

Glišovic, A.

A. Glišović, J. Thieme, P. Guttmann, and T. Salditt, Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 40, 87 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guttmann, P.

A. Glišović, J. Thieme, P. Guttmann, and T. Salditt, Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 40, 87 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Guttmann, B. Niemann, S. Rehbein, C. Knöchel, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, J. Phys. IV 104, 91 (2003).

P. Guttmann, S. Rudolph, S. Heim, S. Rehbein, M. A. Meyer, G. Schneider, and E. Zschech, in Proceedings of the 8th International Conferance on X-ray Microscopy, S.Aoki, Y.Kagoshima, and Y.Suzuki, eds., IPAP Conference Series 7 (Institute of Pure and Applied Physics, 2006), pp. 243-245.

P. Guttmann, B. Niemann, J. Thieme, U. Wiesemann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, in X-ray Microscopy, Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference, W.Meyer-Ilse, T.Warwick, and D.Attwood, eds., AIP Conference Proceeding 507(American Institute of Physics, 2000), pp. 411-415.

Harteneck, B. D.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heim, S.

P. Guttmann, S. Rudolph, S. Heim, S. Rehbein, M. A. Meyer, G. Schneider, and E. Zschech, in Proceedings of the 8th International Conferance on X-ray Microscopy, S.Aoki, Y.Kagoshima, and Y.Suzuki, eds., IPAP Conference Series 7 (Institute of Pure and Applied Physics, 2006), pp. 243-245.

Hertz, H. M.

P. A. C. Jansson, U. Vogt, and H. M. Hertz, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jansson, P. A. C.

P. A. C. Jansson, U. Vogt, and H. M. Hertz, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jonkers, J.

J. Pankert, K. Bergmann, R. Wester, J. Klein, W. Neff, O. Rosier, S. Seiwert, C. Smith, S. Probst, D. Vaudrevange, G. Siemons, R. Apetz, J. Jonkers, M. Loeken, G. Derra, T. Krücken, and P. Zink, in EUV Sources for Lithography, V.Bakshi, ed. (SPIE, 2005), pp. 395-411.

Klein, J.

J. Pankert, K. Bergmann, R. Wester, J. Klein, W. Neff, O. Rosier, S. Seiwert, C. Smith, S. Probst, D. Vaudrevange, G. Siemons, R. Apetz, J. Jonkers, M. Loeken, G. Derra, T. Krücken, and P. Zink, in EUV Sources for Lithography, V.Bakshi, ed. (SPIE, 2005), pp. 395-411.

Knöchel, C.

P. Guttmann, B. Niemann, S. Rehbein, C. Knöchel, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, J. Phys. IV 104, 91 (2003).

Krücken, T.

J. Pankert, K. Bergmann, R. Wester, J. Klein, W. Neff, O. Rosier, S. Seiwert, C. Smith, S. Probst, D. Vaudrevange, G. Siemons, R. Apetz, J. Jonkers, M. Loeken, G. Derra, T. Krücken, and P. Zink, in EUV Sources for Lithography, V.Bakshi, ed. (SPIE, 2005), pp. 395-411.

Küpper, F.

K. Bergmann, F. Küpper, and M. Benk, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 123304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liddle, J. A.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loeken, M.

J. Pankert, K. Bergmann, R. Wester, J. Klein, W. Neff, O. Rosier, S. Seiwert, C. Smith, S. Probst, D. Vaudrevange, G. Siemons, R. Apetz, J. Jonkers, M. Loeken, G. Derra, T. Krücken, and P. Zink, in EUV Sources for Lithography, V.Bakshi, ed. (SPIE, 2005), pp. 395-411.

Meyer, M. A.

P. Guttmann, S. Rudolph, S. Heim, S. Rehbein, M. A. Meyer, G. Schneider, and E. Zschech, in Proceedings of the 8th International Conferance on X-ray Microscopy, S.Aoki, Y.Kagoshima, and Y.Suzuki, eds., IPAP Conference Series 7 (Institute of Pure and Applied Physics, 2006), pp. 243-245.

Neff, W.

J. Pankert, K. Bergmann, R. Wester, J. Klein, W. Neff, O. Rosier, S. Seiwert, C. Smith, S. Probst, D. Vaudrevange, G. Siemons, R. Apetz, J. Jonkers, M. Loeken, G. Derra, T. Krücken, and P. Zink, in EUV Sources for Lithography, V.Bakshi, ed. (SPIE, 2005), pp. 395-411.

Niemann, B.

P. Guttmann, B. Niemann, S. Rehbein, C. Knöchel, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, J. Phys. IV 104, 91 (2003).

P. Guttmann, B. Niemann, J. Thieme, U. Wiesemann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, in X-ray Microscopy, Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference, W.Meyer-Ilse, T.Warwick, and D.Attwood, eds., AIP Conference Proceeding 507(American Institute of Physics, 2000), pp. 411-415.

Pankert, J.

J. Pankert, K. Bergmann, R. Wester, J. Klein, W. Neff, O. Rosier, S. Seiwert, C. Smith, S. Probst, D. Vaudrevange, G. Siemons, R. Apetz, J. Jonkers, M. Loeken, G. Derra, T. Krücken, and P. Zink, in EUV Sources for Lithography, V.Bakshi, ed. (SPIE, 2005), pp. 395-411.

Probst, S.

J. Pankert, K. Bergmann, R. Wester, J. Klein, W. Neff, O. Rosier, S. Seiwert, C. Smith, S. Probst, D. Vaudrevange, G. Siemons, R. Apetz, J. Jonkers, M. Loeken, G. Derra, T. Krücken, and P. Zink, in EUV Sources for Lithography, V.Bakshi, ed. (SPIE, 2005), pp. 395-411.

Raoult, D.

C. Xiao, P. R. Chipman, A. J. Battisti, V. D. Bowman, P. Renesto, D. Raoult, and M. G. Rossmann, Mol. Biol. 353, 493 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rehbein, S.

P. Guttmann, B. Niemann, S. Rehbein, C. Knöchel, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, J. Phys. IV 104, 91 (2003).

P. Guttmann, S. Rudolph, S. Heim, S. Rehbein, M. A. Meyer, G. Schneider, and E. Zschech, in Proceedings of the 8th International Conferance on X-ray Microscopy, S.Aoki, Y.Kagoshima, and Y.Suzuki, eds., IPAP Conference Series 7 (Institute of Pure and Applied Physics, 2006), pp. 243-245.

Renesto, P.

C. Xiao, P. R. Chipman, A. J. Battisti, V. D. Bowman, P. Renesto, D. Raoult, and M. G. Rossmann, Mol. Biol. 353, 493 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rosier, O.

J. Pankert, K. Bergmann, R. Wester, J. Klein, W. Neff, O. Rosier, S. Seiwert, C. Smith, S. Probst, D. Vaudrevange, G. Siemons, R. Apetz, J. Jonkers, M. Loeken, G. Derra, T. Krücken, and P. Zink, in EUV Sources for Lithography, V.Bakshi, ed. (SPIE, 2005), pp. 395-411.

Rossmann, M. G.

C. Xiao, P. R. Chipman, A. J. Battisti, V. D. Bowman, P. Renesto, D. Raoult, and M. G. Rossmann, Mol. Biol. 353, 493 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rothe, J.

J. Rothe, M. A. Denecke, and K. Dardenne, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 231, 91 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rudolph, D.

P. Guttmann, B. Niemann, S. Rehbein, C. Knöchel, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, J. Phys. IV 104, 91 (2003).

P. Guttmann, B. Niemann, J. Thieme, U. Wiesemann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, in X-ray Microscopy, Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference, W.Meyer-Ilse, T.Warwick, and D.Attwood, eds., AIP Conference Proceeding 507(American Institute of Physics, 2000), pp. 411-415.

Rudolph, S.

P. Guttmann, S. Rudolph, S. Heim, S. Rehbein, M. A. Meyer, G. Schneider, and E. Zschech, in Proceedings of the 8th International Conferance on X-ray Microscopy, S.Aoki, Y.Kagoshima, and Y.Suzuki, eds., IPAP Conference Series 7 (Institute of Pure and Applied Physics, 2006), pp. 243-245.

Salditt, T.

A. Glišović, J. Thieme, P. Guttmann, and T. Salditt, Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 40, 87 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schmahl, G.

P. Guttmann, B. Niemann, S. Rehbein, C. Knöchel, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, J. Phys. IV 104, 91 (2003).

P. Guttmann, B. Niemann, J. Thieme, U. Wiesemann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, in X-ray Microscopy, Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference, W.Meyer-Ilse, T.Warwick, and D.Attwood, eds., AIP Conference Proceeding 507(American Institute of Physics, 2000), pp. 411-415.

Schneider, G.

P. Guttmann, S. Rudolph, S. Heim, S. Rehbein, M. A. Meyer, G. Schneider, and E. Zschech, in Proceedings of the 8th International Conferance on X-ray Microscopy, S.Aoki, Y.Kagoshima, and Y.Suzuki, eds., IPAP Conference Series 7 (Institute of Pure and Applied Physics, 2006), pp. 243-245.

Seiwert, S.

J. Pankert, K. Bergmann, R. Wester, J. Klein, W. Neff, O. Rosier, S. Seiwert, C. Smith, S. Probst, D. Vaudrevange, G. Siemons, R. Apetz, J. Jonkers, M. Loeken, G. Derra, T. Krücken, and P. Zink, in EUV Sources for Lithography, V.Bakshi, ed. (SPIE, 2005), pp. 395-411.

Siemons, G.

J. Pankert, K. Bergmann, R. Wester, J. Klein, W. Neff, O. Rosier, S. Seiwert, C. Smith, S. Probst, D. Vaudrevange, G. Siemons, R. Apetz, J. Jonkers, M. Loeken, G. Derra, T. Krücken, and P. Zink, in EUV Sources for Lithography, V.Bakshi, ed. (SPIE, 2005), pp. 395-411.

Smith, C.

J. Pankert, K. Bergmann, R. Wester, J. Klein, W. Neff, O. Rosier, S. Seiwert, C. Smith, S. Probst, D. Vaudrevange, G. Siemons, R. Apetz, J. Jonkers, M. Loeken, G. Derra, T. Krücken, and P. Zink, in EUV Sources for Lithography, V.Bakshi, ed. (SPIE, 2005), pp. 395-411.

Thieme, J.

A. Glišović, J. Thieme, P. Guttmann, and T. Salditt, Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 40, 87 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Guttmann, B. Niemann, J. Thieme, U. Wiesemann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, in X-ray Microscopy, Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference, W.Meyer-Ilse, T.Warwick, and D.Attwood, eds., AIP Conference Proceeding 507(American Institute of Physics, 2000), pp. 411-415.

Vaudrevange, D.

J. Pankert, K. Bergmann, R. Wester, J. Klein, W. Neff, O. Rosier, S. Seiwert, C. Smith, S. Probst, D. Vaudrevange, G. Siemons, R. Apetz, J. Jonkers, M. Loeken, G. Derra, T. Krücken, and P. Zink, in EUV Sources for Lithography, V.Bakshi, ed. (SPIE, 2005), pp. 395-411.

Vogt, U.

P. A. C. Jansson, U. Vogt, and H. M. Hertz, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wester, R.

J. Pankert, K. Bergmann, R. Wester, J. Klein, W. Neff, O. Rosier, S. Seiwert, C. Smith, S. Probst, D. Vaudrevange, G. Siemons, R. Apetz, J. Jonkers, M. Loeken, G. Derra, T. Krücken, and P. Zink, in EUV Sources for Lithography, V.Bakshi, ed. (SPIE, 2005), pp. 395-411.

Wiesemann, U.

P. Guttmann, B. Niemann, J. Thieme, U. Wiesemann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, in X-ray Microscopy, Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference, W.Meyer-Ilse, T.Warwick, and D.Attwood, eds., AIP Conference Proceeding 507(American Institute of Physics, 2000), pp. 411-415.

Xiao, C.

C. Xiao, P. R. Chipman, A. J. Battisti, V. D. Bowman, P. Renesto, D. Raoult, and M. G. Rossmann, Mol. Biol. 353, 493 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zink, P.

J. Pankert, K. Bergmann, R. Wester, J. Klein, W. Neff, O. Rosier, S. Seiwert, C. Smith, S. Probst, D. Vaudrevange, G. Siemons, R. Apetz, J. Jonkers, M. Loeken, G. Derra, T. Krücken, and P. Zink, in EUV Sources for Lithography, V.Bakshi, ed. (SPIE, 2005), pp. 395-411.

Zschech, E.

P. Guttmann, S. Rudolph, S. Heim, S. Rehbein, M. A. Meyer, G. Schneider, and E. Zschech, in Proceedings of the 8th International Conferance on X-ray Microscopy, S.Aoki, Y.Kagoshima, and Y.Suzuki, eds., IPAP Conference Series 7 (Institute of Pure and Applied Physics, 2006), pp. 243-245.

Int. J. Biol. Macromol. (1)

A. Glišović, J. Thieme, P. Guttmann, and T. Salditt, Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 40, 87 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Bergmann, F. Küpper, and M. Benk, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 123304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Colloid Interface Sci. (1)

J. Rothe, M. A. Denecke, and K. Dardenne, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 231, 91 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. IV (1)

P. Guttmann, B. Niemann, S. Rehbein, C. Knöchel, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, J. Phys. IV 104, 91 (2003).

Mol. Biol. (1)

C. Xiao, P. R. Chipman, A. J. Battisti, V. D. Bowman, P. Renesto, D. Raoult, and M. G. Rossmann, Mol. Biol. 353, 493 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

P. A. C. Jansson, U. Vogt, and H. M. Hertz, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 043503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

J. Pankert, K. Bergmann, R. Wester, J. Klein, W. Neff, O. Rosier, S. Seiwert, C. Smith, S. Probst, D. Vaudrevange, G. Siemons, R. Apetz, J. Jonkers, M. Loeken, G. Derra, T. Krücken, and P. Zink, in EUV Sources for Lithography, V.Bakshi, ed. (SPIE, 2005), pp. 395-411.

P. Guttmann, B. Niemann, J. Thieme, U. Wiesemann, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, in X-ray Microscopy, Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference, W.Meyer-Ilse, T.Warwick, and D.Attwood, eds., AIP Conference Proceeding 507(American Institute of Physics, 2000), pp. 411-415.

P. Guttmann, S. Rudolph, S. Heim, S. Rehbein, M. A. Meyer, G. Schneider, and E. Zschech, in Proceedings of the 8th International Conferance on X-ray Microscopy, S.Aoki, Y.Kagoshima, and Y.Suzuki, eds., IPAP Conference Series 7 (Institute of Pure and Applied Physics, 2006), pp. 243-245.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental microscope setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Emission spectrum of nitrogen and transmission of 300 nm Ti filter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Radiant intensity and brilliance into the 2.88 nm emission line as a function of the repetition rate.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulated photon flux on the specimen.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Microscopic images of diatoms and latex spheres.

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