Abstract

We demonstrate high bit rate electro-optic modulation in a resonant micrometer-scale silicon modulator over an ambient temperature range of 15K. We show that low bit error rates can be achieved by varying the bias current through the device to thermally counteract the ambient temperature changes. Robustness in the presence of thermal variations can enable a wide variety of applications for dense on chip electronic photonic integration.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. J. Spector, M. W. Geis, G.-R. Zhou, M. E. Grein, F. Gan, M. A. Popovic, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, E. P. Ippen, F. Z. Kärtner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, Opt. Express 16, 11027 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. W. M. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, Opt. Express 15, 17106 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. P. Varshni, Physica (Amsterdam) 34, 149 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. I. Shake, H. Tikara, and S. Kawanishi, J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 1296 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (4)

2006 (2)

L. Zhou and A. W. Poon, Opt. Express 14, 6851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lipson, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Shake, H. Tikara, and S. Kawanishi, J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 1296 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

W. L. Yang, T. F. Lei, and C. L. Lee, Solid-State Electron. 32, 997 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

A. X. Widmer, and P. A. Franaszek, IBM J. Res. Dev. 27, 440 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

Y. P. Varshni, Physica (Amsterdam) 34, 149 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Barwicz, T.

F. Gan, T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holzwarth, P. T. Rakich, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kartner, in Proceedings of the IEEE/LEOS Photonics in Switching (IEEE, 2007), pp. 67-68.
[CrossRef]

Chabukswar, R.

A. Naveh, E. Rotem, A. Mendelson, S. Gochman, R. Chabukswar, K. Krishnan, and A. Kumar, Intel Technol. J. 10, 109 (2007).

Cohen, O.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dahlem, M. S.

F. Gan, T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holzwarth, P. T. Rakich, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kartner, in Proceedings of the IEEE/LEOS Photonics in Switching (IEEE, 2007), pp. 67-68.
[CrossRef]

Franaszek, P. A.

A. X. Widmer, and P. A. Franaszek, IBM J. Res. Dev. 27, 440 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gan, F.

S. J. Spector, M. W. Geis, G.-R. Zhou, M. E. Grein, F. Gan, M. A. Popovic, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, E. P. Ippen, F. Z. Kärtner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, Opt. Express 16, 11027 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Gan, T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holzwarth, P. T. Rakich, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kartner, in Proceedings of the IEEE/LEOS Photonics in Switching (IEEE, 2007), pp. 67-68.
[CrossRef]

Geis, M. W.

Gochman, S.

A. Naveh, E. Rotem, A. Mendelson, S. Gochman, R. Chabukswar, K. Krishnan, and A. Kumar, Intel Technol. J. 10, 109 (2007).

Green, W. M.

Grein, M. E.

Holzwarth, C. W.

F. Gan, T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holzwarth, P. T. Rakich, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kartner, in Proceedings of the IEEE/LEOS Photonics in Switching (IEEE, 2007), pp. 67-68.
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

S. J. Spector, M. W. Geis, G.-R. Zhou, M. E. Grein, F. Gan, M. A. Popovic, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, E. P. Ippen, F. Z. Kärtner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, Opt. Express 16, 11027 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Gan, T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holzwarth, P. T. Rakich, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kartner, in Proceedings of the IEEE/LEOS Photonics in Switching (IEEE, 2007), pp. 67-68.
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kartner, F. X.

F. Gan, T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holzwarth, P. T. Rakich, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kartner, in Proceedings of the IEEE/LEOS Photonics in Switching (IEEE, 2007), pp. 67-68.
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. Z.

Kawanishi, S.

Krishnan, K.

A. Naveh, E. Rotem, A. Mendelson, S. Gochman, R. Chabukswar, K. Krishnan, and A. Kumar, Intel Technol. J. 10, 109 (2007).

Kumar, A.

A. Naveh, E. Rotem, A. Mendelson, S. Gochman, R. Chabukswar, K. Krishnan, and A. Kumar, Intel Technol. J. 10, 109 (2007).

Lee, C. L.

W. L. Yang, T. F. Lei, and C. L. Lee, Solid-State Electron. 32, 997 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lei, T. F.

W. L. Yang, T. F. Lei, and C. L. Lee, Solid-State Electron. 32, 997 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lennon, D. M.

Liao, L.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

S. Manipatruni, Q. Xu, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 15, 13035 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Schmidt, Q. Xu, J. Shakya, S. Manipatruni, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 15, 3140 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lipson, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Manipatruni, Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, in Proceedings of the Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS 2007) (IEEE, 2007), p. 537.
[CrossRef]

Liu, A.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lyszczarz, T. M.

Manipatruni, S.

B. Schmidt, Q. Xu, J. Shakya, S. Manipatruni, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 15, 3140 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Manipatruni, Q. Xu, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 15, 13035 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Manipatruni, Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, in Proceedings of the Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS 2007) (IEEE, 2007), p. 537.
[CrossRef]

Mendelson, A.

A. Naveh, E. Rotem, A. Mendelson, S. Gochman, R. Chabukswar, K. Krishnan, and A. Kumar, Intel Technol. J. 10, 109 (2007).

Naveh, A.

A. Naveh, E. Rotem, A. Mendelson, S. Gochman, R. Chabukswar, K. Krishnan, and A. Kumar, Intel Technol. J. 10, 109 (2007).

Nicolaescu, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paniccia, M.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poon, A. W.

Popovic, M. A.

S. J. Spector, M. W. Geis, G.-R. Zhou, M. E. Grein, F. Gan, M. A. Popovic, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, E. P. Ippen, F. Z. Kärtner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, Opt. Express 16, 11027 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Gan, T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holzwarth, P. T. Rakich, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kartner, in Proceedings of the IEEE/LEOS Photonics in Switching (IEEE, 2007), pp. 67-68.
[CrossRef]

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rakich, P. T.

F. Gan, T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holzwarth, P. T. Rakich, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kartner, in Proceedings of the IEEE/LEOS Photonics in Switching (IEEE, 2007), pp. 67-68.
[CrossRef]

Rooks, M. J.

Rotem, E.

A. Naveh, E. Rotem, A. Mendelson, S. Gochman, R. Chabukswar, K. Krishnan, and A. Kumar, Intel Technol. J. 10, 109 (2007).

Rubin, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samara-Rubio, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, B.

B. Schmidt, Q. Xu, J. Shakya, S. Manipatruni, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 15, 3140 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Manipatruni, Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, in Proceedings of the Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS 2007) (IEEE, 2007), p. 537.
[CrossRef]

Sekaric, L.

Shake, I.

Shakya, J.

B. Schmidt, Q. Xu, J. Shakya, S. Manipatruni, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 15, 3140 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Manipatruni, Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, in Proceedings of the Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS 2007) (IEEE, 2007), p. 537.
[CrossRef]

Smith, H. I.

F. Gan, T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holzwarth, P. T. Rakich, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kartner, in Proceedings of the IEEE/LEOS Photonics in Switching (IEEE, 2007), pp. 67-68.
[CrossRef]

Spector, S. J.

Tikara, H.

Varshni, Y. P.

Y. P. Varshni, Physica (Amsterdam) 34, 149 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Widmer, A. X.

A. X. Widmer, and P. A. Franaszek, IBM J. Res. Dev. 27, 440 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

S. Manipatruni, Q. Xu, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 15, 13035 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Schmidt, Q. Xu, J. Shakya, S. Manipatruni, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 15, 3140 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Manipatruni, Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, in Proceedings of the Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS 2007) (IEEE, 2007), p. 537.
[CrossRef]

Yang, W. L.

W. L. Yang, T. F. Lei, and C. L. Lee, Solid-State Electron. 32, 997 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, J. U.

Zhou, G.-R.

Zhou, L.

IBM J. Res. Dev. (1)

A. X. Widmer, and P. A. Franaszek, IBM J. Res. Dev. 27, 440 (1983).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Lipson, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Intel Technol. J. (1)

A. Naveh, E. Rotem, A. Mendelson, S. Gochman, R. Chabukswar, K. Krishnan, and A. Kumar, Intel Technol. J. 10, 109 (2007).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nature (2)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (5)

Physica (Amsterdam) (1)

Y. P. Varshni, Physica (Amsterdam) 34, 149 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Solid-State Electron. (1)

W. L. Yang, T. F. Lei, and C. L. Lee, Solid-State Electron. 32, 997 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

S. Manipatruni, Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, in Proceedings of the Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (LEOS 2007) (IEEE, 2007), p. 537.
[CrossRef]

F. Gan, T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holzwarth, P. T. Rakich, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kartner, in Proceedings of the IEEE/LEOS Photonics in Switching (IEEE, 2007), pp. 67-68.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the electro-optic ring device. (b) Cross section of the waveguide embedded in a p-i-n junction. (c) Scanning electron microscope image of the ring resonator before the definition of doped regions and contacts.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Transmission spectra of the electro-optic modulator under varying dc bias voltages. (b) Eye diagram at 1 Gbit s . All the above measurements were performed at nominal operating temperature ( Δ T = 0 K ) .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Transmission spectra with varying ambient temperature with no current through the device. (b) Distorted eye diagram at Δ T = 2 K , 1 Gbit s . Applied ac-modulated voltage and wavelength of operation were unchanged.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulation of the waveform distortion due to thermal effects. (a) Baseline simulations at Δ T = 0 K . (b) Distorted waveforms at Δ T = 15 K ; gray curves show the electro-optic device computer simulations, and the black curves show the measured waveforms.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical transmission eye diagrams at various thermal and bias current conditions. Eye diagrams (a) at Δ T = 0 K , 1.36 mA , (b) degraded at Δ T = 15 K , 1.36 mA , and (c) retrieved at Δ T = 15 K , 345 μ A . PRBS 2 9 1   bit sequences were used for all measurements. Applied ac-modulated voltage and wavelength of operation were kept constant.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Temperature profiles using (a) metal strip heater and (b) direct localized waveguide heating. The gradient bar indicates the temperature scale in Kelvin.

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