Abstract

Motivated by recent advances in solid-state incoherent ultraviolet sources and solar blind detectors, we study communication link performance over a range of less than 1km with a bit error rate (BER) below 103 in solar blind non-line-of-sight situation. The widely adopted yet complex single scattering channel model is significantly simplified by means of a closed-form expression for tractable analysis. Path loss is given as a function of transceiver geometry as well as atmospheric scattering and attenuation and is compared with experimental data for model validation. The BER performance of a shot-noise-limited receiver under this channel model is demonstrated.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2008

Z. Xu and B. M. Sadler, IEEE Commun. Mag. 46, 67 (2008).

2007

Z. Xu, G. Chen, F. Abou-Galala, and M. Leonardi, Proc. SPIE 6709, 67090Y (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Adivarahan, Q. Fareed, S. Srivastava, T. Katona, M. Gaevski, and A. Khan, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 537 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Bai, D. Mcintosh, H. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1822 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Shen, Y. Zhang, D. Yoo, J.-B. Limb, J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, and R. D. Dupuis, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1744 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

G. A. Shaw, A. M. Siegel, and J. Model, Proc. SPIE 6231, 62310C (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

F. Yan, X. Xin, S. Aslam, Y. Zhao, D. Franz, J. H. Zhao, and M. Weiner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. Shatalov, J. Zhang, A. S. Chitnis, V. Adivarahan, J. Yang, G. Simin, and M. A. Khan, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 302 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

G. A. Shaw, M. L. Nischan, M. A. Iyengar, S. Kaushik, and M. K. Griffin, Proc. SPIE 4126, 83 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995

1991

1978

Abou-Galala, F.

Z. Xu, G. Chen, F. Abou-Galala, and M. Leonardi, Proc. SPIE 6709, 67090Y (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adivarahan, V.

V. Adivarahan, Q. Fareed, S. Srivastava, T. Katona, M. Gaevski, and A. Khan, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 537 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Shatalov, J. Zhang, A. S. Chitnis, V. Adivarahan, J. Yang, G. Simin, and M. A. Khan, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 302 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Aslam, S.

F. Yan, X. Xin, S. Aslam, Y. Zhao, D. Franz, J. H. Zhao, and M. Weiner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bai, X.

X. Bai, D. Mcintosh, H. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1822 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bucholtz, A.

Campbell, J. C.

X. Bai, D. Mcintosh, H. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1822 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

Z. Xu, G. Chen, F. Abou-Galala, and M. Leonardi, Proc. SPIE 6709, 67090Y (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chitnis, A. S.

M. Shatalov, J. Zhang, A. S. Chitnis, V. Adivarahan, J. Yang, G. Simin, and M. A. Khan, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 302 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dupuis, R. D.

S. C. Shen, Y. Zhang, D. Yoo, J.-B. Limb, J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, and R. D. Dupuis, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1744 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fareed, Q.

V. Adivarahan, Q. Fareed, S. Srivastava, T. Katona, M. Gaevski, and A. Khan, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 537 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Franz, D.

F. Yan, X. Xin, S. Aslam, Y. Zhao, D. Franz, J. H. Zhao, and M. Weiner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gaevski, M.

V. Adivarahan, Q. Fareed, S. Srivastava, T. Katona, M. Gaevski, and A. Khan, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 537 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gagliardi, R. M.

R. M. Gagliardi and S. Karp, Optical Communications (Wiley, 1995), Chap 6.

Griffin, M. K.

G. A. Shaw, M. L. Nischan, M. A. Iyengar, S. Kaushik, and M. K. Griffin, Proc. SPIE 4126, 83 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Iyengar, M. A.

G. A. Shaw, M. L. Nischan, M. A. Iyengar, S. Kaushik, and M. K. Griffin, Proc. SPIE 4126, 83 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Karp, S.

R. M. Gagliardi and S. Karp, Optical Communications (Wiley, 1995), Chap 6.

Katona, T.

V. Adivarahan, Q. Fareed, S. Srivastava, T. Katona, M. Gaevski, and A. Khan, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 537 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kaushik, S.

G. A. Shaw, M. L. Nischan, M. A. Iyengar, S. Kaushik, and M. K. Griffin, Proc. SPIE 4126, 83 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Khan, A.

V. Adivarahan, Q. Fareed, S. Srivastava, T. Katona, M. Gaevski, and A. Khan, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 537 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Khan, M. A.

M. Shatalov, J. Zhang, A. S. Chitnis, V. Adivarahan, J. Yang, G. Simin, and M. A. Khan, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 302 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Koller, L. R.

L. R. Koller, Ultraviolet Radiation (Wiley, 1965).

Leonardi, M.

Z. Xu, G. Chen, F. Abou-Galala, and M. Leonardi, Proc. SPIE 6709, 67090Y (2007).
[CrossRef]

Limb, J.-B.

S. C. Shen, Y. Zhang, D. Yoo, J.-B. Limb, J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, and R. D. Dupuis, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1744 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

X. Bai, D. Mcintosh, H. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1822 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Luettgen, M. R.

Mcintosh, D.

X. Bai, D. Mcintosh, H. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1822 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Model, J.

G. A. Shaw, A. M. Siegel, and J. Model, Proc. SPIE 6231, 62310C (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nischan, M. L.

G. A. Shaw, M. L. Nischan, M. A. Iyengar, S. Kaushik, and M. K. Griffin, Proc. SPIE 4126, 83 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Reilly, D. M.

Ryou, J.-H.

S. C. Shen, Y. Zhang, D. Yoo, J.-B. Limb, J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, and R. D. Dupuis, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1744 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sadler, B. M.

Z. Xu and B. M. Sadler, IEEE Commun. Mag. 46, 67 (2008).

B. M. Sadler, R. Ulman, and Z. Xu, ARO/ARL Workshop on Ultraviolet Devices and Communication Systems, College Park, Md. (April 23, 2008), http://www.ee.ucr.edu/~dxu/CFP-UVworkshop08.html.

Shapiro, J. H.

Shatalov, M.

M. Shatalov, J. Zhang, A. S. Chitnis, V. Adivarahan, J. Yang, G. Simin, and M. A. Khan, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 302 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, G. A.

G. A. Shaw, A. M. Siegel, and J. Model, Proc. SPIE 6231, 62310C (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Shaw, M. L. Nischan, M. A. Iyengar, S. Kaushik, and M. K. Griffin, Proc. SPIE 4126, 83 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shen, S. C.

S. C. Shen, Y. Zhang, D. Yoo, J.-B. Limb, J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, and R. D. Dupuis, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1744 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, A. M.

G. A. Shaw, A. M. Siegel, and J. Model, Proc. SPIE 6231, 62310C (2006).
[CrossRef]

Simin, G.

M. Shatalov, J. Zhang, A. S. Chitnis, V. Adivarahan, J. Yang, G. Simin, and M. A. Khan, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 302 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, S.

V. Adivarahan, Q. Fareed, S. Srivastava, T. Katona, M. Gaevski, and A. Khan, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 537 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ulman, R.

B. M. Sadler, R. Ulman, and Z. Xu, ARO/ARL Workshop on Ultraviolet Devices and Communication Systems, College Park, Md. (April 23, 2008), http://www.ee.ucr.edu/~dxu/CFP-UVworkshop08.html.

Weiner, M.

F. Yan, X. Xin, S. Aslam, Y. Zhao, D. Franz, J. H. Zhao, and M. Weiner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xin, X.

F. Yan, X. Xin, S. Aslam, Y. Zhao, D. Franz, J. H. Zhao, and M. Weiner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

Z. Xu and B. M. Sadler, IEEE Commun. Mag. 46, 67 (2008).

Z. Xu, G. Chen, F. Abou-Galala, and M. Leonardi, Proc. SPIE 6709, 67090Y (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Sadler, R. Ulman, and Z. Xu, ARO/ARL Workshop on Ultraviolet Devices and Communication Systems, College Park, Md. (April 23, 2008), http://www.ee.ucr.edu/~dxu/CFP-UVworkshop08.html.

Yan, F.

F. Yan, X. Xin, S. Aslam, Y. Zhao, D. Franz, J. H. Zhao, and M. Weiner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

M. Shatalov, J. Zhang, A. S. Chitnis, V. Adivarahan, J. Yang, G. Simin, and M. A. Khan, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 302 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yoder, P. D.

S. C. Shen, Y. Zhang, D. Yoo, J.-B. Limb, J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, and R. D. Dupuis, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1744 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, D.

S. C. Shen, Y. Zhang, D. Yoo, J.-B. Limb, J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, and R. D. Dupuis, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1744 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zachor, A. S.

Zhang, J.

M. Shatalov, J. Zhang, A. S. Chitnis, V. Adivarahan, J. Yang, G. Simin, and M. A. Khan, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 302 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

S. C. Shen, Y. Zhang, D. Yoo, J.-B. Limb, J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, and R. D. Dupuis, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1744 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J. H.

F. Yan, X. Xin, S. Aslam, Y. Zhao, D. Franz, J. H. Zhao, and M. Weiner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

F. Yan, X. Xin, S. Aslam, Y. Zhao, D. Franz, J. H. Zhao, and M. Weiner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

IEEE Commun. Mag.

Z. Xu and B. M. Sadler, IEEE Commun. Mag. 46, 67 (2008).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

F. Yan, X. Xin, S. Aslam, Y. Zhao, D. Franz, J. H. Zhao, and M. Weiner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

M. Shatalov, J. Zhang, A. S. Chitnis, V. Adivarahan, J. Yang, G. Simin, and M. A. Khan, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 302 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

X. Bai, D. Mcintosh, H. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1822 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Shen, Y. Zhang, D. Yoo, J.-B. Limb, J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, and R. D. Dupuis, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1744 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

V. Adivarahan, Q. Fareed, S. Srivastava, T. Katona, M. Gaevski, and A. Khan, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 537 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Proc. SPIE

G. A. Shaw, M. L. Nischan, M. A. Iyengar, S. Kaushik, and M. K. Griffin, Proc. SPIE 4126, 83 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Shaw, A. M. Siegel, and J. Model, Proc. SPIE 6231, 62310C (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Xu, G. Chen, F. Abou-Galala, and M. Leonardi, Proc. SPIE 6709, 67090Y (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other

Deep Ultraviolet Avalanche Photodetectors (DUVAP), http://www.arpa.mil/mto/programs/duvap.

B. M. Sadler, R. Ulman, and Z. Xu, ARO/ARL Workshop on Ultraviolet Devices and Communication Systems, College Park, Md. (April 23, 2008), http://www.ee.ucr.edu/~dxu/CFP-UVworkshop08.html.

L. R. Koller, Ultraviolet Radiation (Wiley, 1965).

R. M. Gagliardi and S. Karp, Optical Communications (Wiley, 1995), Chap 6.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

An NLOS UV communication link.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of measured and predicted path loss (per cm 2 ) for different ranges and apex angles.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Path loss from exact and approximated models.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Rate, range, and BER trade-offs.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

δ E r = E t k s P ( μ ) A r δ V cos ζ exp [ k e ( r 1 + r 2 ) ] Ω 1 r 1 2 r 2 2 ,
P ( μ ) = k s Ray k s p Ray ( μ ) + k s Mie k s p Mie ( μ ) ,
p Ray ( μ ) = 3 [ 1 + 3 γ + ( 1 γ ) μ 2 ] 16 π ( 1 + 2 γ ) ,
p Mie ( μ ) = 1 g 2 4 π [ 1 ( 1 + g 2 2 g μ ) 3 2 + f 0.5 ( 3 μ 2 1 ) ( 1 + g 2 ) 3 2 ] ,
E r E t k s P ( μ ) A r V sin 4 θ s exp [ k e r sin θ s ( sin θ 1 + sin θ 2 ) ] 2 π r 4 sin 2 θ 1 sin 2 θ 2 ( 1 cos ϕ 1 2 ) .
L 96 r sin θ 1 sin 2 θ 2 ( 1 cos ϕ 1 2 ) exp [ k e r ( sin θ 1 + sin θ 2 ) sin θ s ] k s P ( μ ) A r ϕ 1 2 ϕ 2 sin θ s ( 12 sin 2 θ 2 + ϕ 2 2 sin 2 θ 1 ) .
BER = 0.5 exp ( P t η f η r λ L R h c ) ,

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