Abstract

A particle-swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm was developed for designing binary-phase-only diffractive optical elements (DOEs) that superresolve the axially focused point-spread function. The method is based on vector diffraction theory to ensure solutions are valid under high-NA conditions. A DOE is identified that superresolves the focal spot by 34% and maintains the sidelobes below 50% of the peak intensity. The algorithm was used to obtain the Pareto front of the fitness-value space, which describes the achievable superresolution versus an allowed upper bound in sidelobe intensity. The results suggest that the algorithm yields solutions that are global in terms of the co-optimized fitness values G and M.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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