Abstract

Circularly polarized (CP) femtosecond laser light focused into fused silica produces a permanent recording of optical helicity. Material modification is in the form of highly ordered submicrometer chiral structures whose handedness follows the handedness of the CP light. The evolution of the ordered structures from chaotic modification is described.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Iftime, F. L. Labarthet, A. Natansohn, and P. Rochon, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 12646 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Wang and C. Guo, Opt. Lett. 31, 3641 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. Hnatovsky, V. R. Bhardwaj, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Appl. Phys. A 84, 47 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Shimotsuma, P. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. P. Rajeev, M. Gerstvolf, E. Simova, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 253001 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Opt. Lett. 32, 2888 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, and C. Hnatovsky, Laser Photonics Rev. 2, 26 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, and C. Hnatovsky, Laser Photonics Rev. 2, 26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (4)

J. Wang and C. Guo, Opt. Lett. 31, 3641 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, V. R. Bhardwaj, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Appl. Phys. A 84, 47 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. P. Rajeev, M. Gerstvolf, E. Simova, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 253001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Y. Shimotsuma, P. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

G. Iftime, F. L. Labarthet, A. Natansohn, and P. Rochon, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 12646 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bhardwaj, V. R.

C. Hnatovsky, V. R. Bhardwaj, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Appl. Phys. A 84, 47 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Opt. Lett. 32, 2888 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. P. Rajeev, M. Gerstvolf, E. Simova, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 253001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, V. R. Bhardwaj, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Appl. Phys. A 84, 47 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gerstvolf, M.

P. P. Rajeev, M. Gerstvolf, E. Simova, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 253001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Guo, C.

Hirao, K.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hnatovsky, C.

R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, and C. Hnatovsky, Laser Photonics Rev. 2, 26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Opt. Lett. 32, 2888 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. P. Rajeev, M. Gerstvolf, E. Simova, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 253001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, V. R. Bhardwaj, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Appl. Phys. A 84, 47 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Iftime, G.

G. Iftime, F. L. Labarthet, A. Natansohn, and P. Rochon, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 12646 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kazansky, P.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Labarthet, F. L.

G. Iftime, F. L. Labarthet, A. Natansohn, and P. Rochon, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 12646 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Natansohn, A.

G. Iftime, F. L. Labarthet, A. Natansohn, and P. Rochon, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 12646 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajeev, P. P.

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Opt. Lett. 32, 2888 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, V. R. Bhardwaj, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Appl. Phys. A 84, 47 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Rajeev, M. Gerstvolf, E. Simova, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 253001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rayner, D. M.

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Opt. Lett. 32, 2888 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. P. Rajeev, M. Gerstvolf, E. Simova, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 253001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, V. R. Bhardwaj, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Appl. Phys. A 84, 47 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rochon, P.

G. Iftime, F. L. Labarthet, A. Natansohn, and P. Rochon, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 12646 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shimotsuma, Y.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simova, E.

R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, and C. Hnatovsky, Laser Photonics Rev. 2, 26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Opt. Lett. 32, 2888 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. P. Rajeev, M. Gerstvolf, E. Simova, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 253001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, V. R. Bhardwaj, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Appl. Phys. A 84, 47 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, R. S.

R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, and C. Hnatovsky, Laser Photonics Rev. 2, 26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Opt. Lett. 32, 2888 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. P. Rajeev, M. Gerstvolf, E. Simova, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 253001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, V. R. Bhardwaj, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Appl. Phys. A 84, 47 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Appl. Phys. A (1)

C. Hnatovsky, V. R. Bhardwaj, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Appl. Phys. A 84, 47 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

G. Iftime, F. L. Labarthet, A. Natansohn, and P. Rochon, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 12646 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, and C. Hnatovsky, Laser Photonics Rev. 2, 26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

Y. Shimotsuma, P. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. P. Rajeev, M. Gerstvolf, E. Simova, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 253001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic showing fixed focus (left) and continuous writing (right) for vertical and horizontal observation planes, where morphology was studied. The laser light electric vector E, the light propagation direction k, and the writing direction S are also indicated. (b) SEM image of the morphology obtained in the top half of the vertical plane [dashed curve in (a)]. The sample was translated perpendicular to k at a speed of 100 μ m s and was exposed to 1000 laser pulses/ μ m of scan.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Representative images of fixed focus material modification for different laser polarizations: (a) LP, SEM; (b) EP with β = 60 % , AFM; and (c) and (d) CP, SEM. The structures in (a), (b), and (d) were produced with 1500 laser pulses and (c) with 100 laser pulses.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM images obtained in the horizontal observation plane (a) 4 μ m below the top of the modified region using E p = 350 nJ and (b) 2 μ m below the top of the modified region but with E p = 200 nJ . (c) Enlarged image of one of the chiral units shown in (b) produced with right-handed CP light. (d) Chiral unit produced using left-handed CP with the same pulse energy and scan rate that was used in (c). (a)–(d) Structures produced at a speed of 30 μ m s exposing the sample to 3300 pulses μ m of scan.

Equations (1)

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E = 3 [ ε 2 2 ( ε 2 2 ε 1 2 ) cos 2 ( θ ) ] 1 2 ε 1 + 2 ε 2 E ,

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