Abstract

We present the first experimental demonstration of a resolvable mode structure with spacing c2nL in the RF spectra of ultralong Raman fiber lasers. The longest ever demonstrated laser cavity (L=84km), RF peaks of 100Hz width and spacing 1kHz have been observed at low intracavity powers. The width of the peaks increases linearly with growing intracavity power and is almost independent of fiber length.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. G. Grubb, T. Strasser, W. Y. Cheung, W. A. Reed, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, P. J. Lemaire, A. M. Vengsarkar, and D. J. Digiovanni, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 18 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1995), paper SaA4.S7.
  2. M. D. Mermelstein, C. Headley, J.-C. Bouteiller, P. Steinvurzel, C. Horn, K. Feder, and B. J. Eggleton, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1286 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P.-L. Hsiung, Y. Chen, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, C. J. S. de Matos, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, and V. P. Gapontsev, Opt. Express 12, 5287 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y.-G. Han, T. V. A. Tran, S.-H. Kim, and S. B. Lee, Opt. Lett. 30, 1114 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. Headley and G. P. Agrawal, Raman Amplification in Fiber Optical Communication Systems (Academic, 2004).
  6. D. A. Chestnut, C. J. S. de Matos, P. C. Reeves-Hall, and J. R. Taylor, Opt. Lett. 27, 1708 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. D. Ania-Castañón, Opt. Express 12, 4372 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. D. Ania-Castañón, T. J. Ellingham, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 023902 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. J. Ellingham, J. D. Ania-Castañón, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 268 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. A. Fotiadi, S. I. Kablukov, O. I. Medvedkov, and E. V. Podivilov, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2553 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, and E. V. Podivilov, Opt. Commun. 226, 329 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. E. Ismagulov, S. I. Kablukov, and E. V. Podivilov, Opt. Lett. 31, 3007 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

J. D. Ania-Castañón, T. J. Ellingham, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 023902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Ellingham, J. D. Ania-Castañón, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 268 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. E. Ismagulov, S. I. Kablukov, and E. V. Podivilov, Opt. Lett. 31, 3007 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, and E. V. Podivilov, Opt. Commun. 226, 329 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

M. D. Mermelstein, C. Headley, J.-C. Bouteiller, P. Steinvurzel, C. Horn, K. Feder, and B. J. Eggleton, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1286 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

C. Headley and G. P. Agrawal, Raman Amplification in Fiber Optical Communication Systems (Academic, 2004).

Ania-Castañón, J. D.

T. J. Ellingham, J. D. Ania-Castañón, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 268 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Ania-Castañón, T. J. Ellingham, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 023902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Ania-Castañón, Opt. Express 12, 4372 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Babin, S. A.

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. E. Ismagulov, S. I. Kablukov, and E. V. Podivilov, Opt. Lett. 31, 3007 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. A. Fotiadi, S. I. Kablukov, O. I. Medvedkov, and E. V. Podivilov, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2553 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, and E. V. Podivilov, Opt. Commun. 226, 329 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bouteiller, J.-C.

M. D. Mermelstein, C. Headley, J.-C. Bouteiller, P. Steinvurzel, C. Horn, K. Feder, and B. J. Eggleton, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1286 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

T. J. Ellingham, J. D. Ania-Castañón, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 268 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Ania-Castañón, T. J. Ellingham, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 023902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Chestnut, D. A.

Cheung, W. Y.

S. G. Grubb, T. Strasser, W. Y. Cheung, W. A. Reed, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, P. J. Lemaire, A. M. Vengsarkar, and D. J. Digiovanni, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 18 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1995), paper SaA4.S7.

Churkin, D. V.

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. E. Ismagulov, S. I. Kablukov, and E. V. Podivilov, Opt. Lett. 31, 3007 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. A. Fotiadi, S. I. Kablukov, O. I. Medvedkov, and E. V. Podivilov, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2553 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, and E. V. Podivilov, Opt. Commun. 226, 329 (2003).
[CrossRef]

de Matos, C. J. S.

Digiovanni, D. J.

S. G. Grubb, T. Strasser, W. Y. Cheung, W. A. Reed, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, P. J. Lemaire, A. M. Vengsarkar, and D. J. Digiovanni, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 18 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1995), paper SaA4.S7.

Eggleton, B. J.

M. D. Mermelstein, C. Headley, J.-C. Bouteiller, P. Steinvurzel, C. Horn, K. Feder, and B. J. Eggleton, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1286 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ellingham, T. J.

T. J. Ellingham, J. D. Ania-Castañón, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 268 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Ania-Castañón, T. J. Ellingham, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 023902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erdogan, T.

S. G. Grubb, T. Strasser, W. Y. Cheung, W. A. Reed, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, P. J. Lemaire, A. M. Vengsarkar, and D. J. Digiovanni, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 18 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1995), paper SaA4.S7.

Feder, K.

M. D. Mermelstein, C. Headley, J.-C. Bouteiller, P. Steinvurzel, C. Horn, K. Feder, and B. J. Eggleton, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1286 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fotiadi, A. A.

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. A. Fotiadi, S. I. Kablukov, O. I. Medvedkov, and E. V. Podivilov, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2553 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gapontsev, V. P.

Grubb, S. G.

S. G. Grubb, T. Strasser, W. Y. Cheung, W. A. Reed, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, P. J. Lemaire, A. M. Vengsarkar, and D. J. Digiovanni, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 18 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1995), paper SaA4.S7.

Han, Y.-G.

Headley, C.

M. D. Mermelstein, C. Headley, J.-C. Bouteiller, P. Steinvurzel, C. Horn, K. Feder, and B. J. Eggleton, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1286 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Headley and G. P. Agrawal, Raman Amplification in Fiber Optical Communication Systems (Academic, 2004).

Horn, C.

M. D. Mermelstein, C. Headley, J.-C. Bouteiller, P. Steinvurzel, C. Horn, K. Feder, and B. J. Eggleton, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1286 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hsiung, P.-L.

Ibbotson, R.

T. J. Ellingham, J. D. Ania-Castañón, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 268 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Ania-Castañón, T. J. Ellingham, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 023902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ismagulov, A. E.

Kablukov, S. I.

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. E. Ismagulov, S. I. Kablukov, and E. V. Podivilov, Opt. Lett. 31, 3007 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. A. Fotiadi, S. I. Kablukov, O. I. Medvedkov, and E. V. Podivilov, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2553 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-H.

Ko, T. H.

Lee, S. B.

Lemaire, P. J.

S. G. Grubb, T. Strasser, W. Y. Cheung, W. A. Reed, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, P. J. Lemaire, A. M. Vengsarkar, and D. J. Digiovanni, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 18 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1995), paper SaA4.S7.

Medvedkov, O. I.

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. A. Fotiadi, S. I. Kablukov, O. I. Medvedkov, and E. V. Podivilov, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2553 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mermelstein, M. D.

M. D. Mermelstein, C. Headley, J.-C. Bouteiller, P. Steinvurzel, C. Horn, K. Feder, and B. J. Eggleton, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1286 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mizrahi, V.

S. G. Grubb, T. Strasser, W. Y. Cheung, W. A. Reed, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, P. J. Lemaire, A. M. Vengsarkar, and D. J. Digiovanni, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 18 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1995), paper SaA4.S7.

Podivilov, E. V.

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. E. Ismagulov, S. I. Kablukov, and E. V. Podivilov, Opt. Lett. 31, 3007 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. A. Fotiadi, S. I. Kablukov, O. I. Medvedkov, and E. V. Podivilov, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2553 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, and E. V. Podivilov, Opt. Commun. 226, 329 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Popov, S. V.

Reed, W. A.

S. G. Grubb, T. Strasser, W. Y. Cheung, W. A. Reed, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, P. J. Lemaire, A. M. Vengsarkar, and D. J. Digiovanni, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 18 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1995), paper SaA4.S7.

Reeves-Hall, P. C.

Steinvurzel, P.

M. D. Mermelstein, C. Headley, J.-C. Bouteiller, P. Steinvurzel, C. Horn, K. Feder, and B. J. Eggleton, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1286 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Strasser, T.

S. G. Grubb, T. Strasser, W. Y. Cheung, W. A. Reed, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, P. J. Lemaire, A. M. Vengsarkar, and D. J. Digiovanni, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 18 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1995), paper SaA4.S7.

Taylor, J. R.

Tran, T. V. A.

Turitsyn, S. K.

J. D. Ania-Castañón, T. J. Ellingham, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 023902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Ellingham, J. D. Ania-Castañón, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 268 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

S. G. Grubb, T. Strasser, W. Y. Cheung, W. A. Reed, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, P. J. Lemaire, A. M. Vengsarkar, and D. J. Digiovanni, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 18 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1995), paper SaA4.S7.

Zhang, L.

T. J. Ellingham, J. D. Ania-Castañón, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 268 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Ania-Castañón, T. J. Ellingham, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 023902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

T. J. Ellingham, J. D. Ania-Castañón, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 268 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, A. A. Fotiadi, S. I. Kablukov, O. I. Medvedkov, and E. V. Podivilov, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2553 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Mermelstein, C. Headley, J.-C. Bouteiller, P. Steinvurzel, C. Horn, K. Feder, and B. J. Eggleton, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1286 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, and E. V. Podivilov, Opt. Commun. 226, 329 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. D. Ania-Castañón, T. J. Ellingham, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 023902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

S. G. Grubb, T. Strasser, W. Y. Cheung, W. A. Reed, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, P. J. Lemaire, A. M. Vengsarkar, and D. J. Digiovanni, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 18 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1995), paper SaA4.S7.

C. Headley and G. P. Agrawal, Raman Amplification in Fiber Optical Communication Systems (Academic, 2004).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic depiction of the URFL.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

URFL RF spectra measured via the first splitter for different cavity lengths (a) 6.6 km , (b) 22 km , (c) 44 km , and (d) 84 km at total intracavity power P 7 mW at 1455 nm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

RF spectra measured via the first splitter for the RFL with cavity length L = 6.6 km at different total intracavity power at 1455 nm (a) P 7 mW , (b) 61 mW , (c) 136 mW , (d) 265 mW .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral width of the RF peaks at 3 dB level as a function of the total intracavity power at 1455 nm .

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