Abstract

A cesium 6S128S12 two-photon-transition (TPT)–stabilized 822.5nm diode laser is reported for the first time to our knowledge. Allan deviation of 4.4×1013 (60s) was achieved, and the possible systematic errors were evaluated as smaller than 2kHz. We demonstrate that the cesium TPT-stabilized diode laser could be a reliable frequency reference at 822.5nm wavelength.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. N. Nesmeyanov, Vapor Pressures of the Elements (Academic, 1963).
  2. K. Sasaki, K. Sugiyama, V. Barychev, and A. Onae, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 39, 5310 (2000).
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  4. G. Hagel, C. Nesi, L. Jozefowski, C. Schwob, F. Nez, and F. Biraben, Opt. Commun. 160, 1 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. J. Hawthorn, K. P. Weber, and R. E. Scholten, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 4477 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Girard, G. O. Sitz, R. N. Zare, N. Billy, and J. Vigue, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 26 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Felder, Metrologia 42, 323 (2005), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. J. Quinn, Metrologia 40, 103 (2003), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. Hilico, R. Felder, D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, and F. Baraben, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 4, 219 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. E. Bernard, A. A. Madej, K. J. Siemsen, L. Marmet, C. Latrasse, D. Touahri, M. Poulin, M. Allard, and M. Tetu, Opt. Commun. 173, 357 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, H. S. Margolis, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, Metrologia 42, 464 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2005

R. Felder, Metrologia 42, 323 (2005), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, H. S. Margolis, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, Metrologia 42, 464 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

T. J. Quinn, Metrologia 40, 103 (2003), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

2001

C. J. Hawthorn, K. P. Weber, and R. E. Scholten, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 4477 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

K. Sasaki, K. Sugiyama, V. Barychev, and A. Onae, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 39, 5310 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Bernard, A. A. Madej, K. J. Siemsen, L. Marmet, C. Latrasse, D. Touahri, M. Poulin, M. Allard, and M. Tetu, Opt. Commun. 173, 357 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

G. Hagel, C. Nesi, L. Jozefowski, C. Schwob, F. Nez, and F. Biraben, Opt. Commun. 160, 1 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

L. Hilico, R. Felder, D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, and F. Baraben, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 4, 219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992

B. Girard, G. O. Sitz, R. N. Zare, N. Billy, and J. Vigue, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 26 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1977

G. Grynberg and B. Cagnac, Rep. Prog. Phys. 40, 791 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Acef, O.

L. Hilico, R. Felder, D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, and F. Baraben, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 4, 219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Allard, M.

J. E. Bernard, A. A. Madej, K. J. Siemsen, L. Marmet, C. Latrasse, D. Touahri, M. Poulin, M. Allard, and M. Tetu, Opt. Commun. 173, 357 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Baraben, F.

L. Hilico, R. Felder, D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, and F. Baraben, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 4, 219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barwood, G. P.

C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, H. S. Margolis, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, Metrologia 42, 464 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barychev, V.

K. Sasaki, K. Sugiyama, V. Barychev, and A. Onae, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 39, 5310 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bernard, J. E.

J. E. Bernard, A. A. Madej, K. J. Siemsen, L. Marmet, C. Latrasse, D. Touahri, M. Poulin, M. Allard, and M. Tetu, Opt. Commun. 173, 357 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Billy, N.

B. Girard, G. O. Sitz, R. N. Zare, N. Billy, and J. Vigue, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 26 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Biraben, F.

G. Hagel, C. Nesi, L. Jozefowski, C. Schwob, F. Nez, and F. Biraben, Opt. Commun. 160, 1 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cagnac, B.

G. Grynberg and B. Cagnac, Rep. Prog. Phys. 40, 791 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Clairon, A.

L. Hilico, R. Felder, D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, and F. Baraben, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 4, 219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, C. S.

C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, H. S. Margolis, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, Metrologia 42, 464 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Felder, R.

R. Felder, Metrologia 42, 323 (2005), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

L. Hilico, R. Felder, D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, and F. Baraben, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 4, 219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gill, P.

C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, H. S. Margolis, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, Metrologia 42, 464 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Girard, B.

B. Girard, G. O. Sitz, R. N. Zare, N. Billy, and J. Vigue, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 26 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Grynberg, G.

G. Grynberg and B. Cagnac, Rep. Prog. Phys. 40, 791 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hagel, G.

G. Hagel, C. Nesi, L. Jozefowski, C. Schwob, F. Nez, and F. Biraben, Opt. Commun. 160, 1 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hawthorn, C. J.

C. J. Hawthorn, K. P. Weber, and R. E. Scholten, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 4477 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hilico, L.

L. Hilico, R. Felder, D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, and F. Baraben, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 4, 219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jozefowski, L.

G. Hagel, C. Nesi, L. Jozefowski, C. Schwob, F. Nez, and F. Biraben, Opt. Commun. 160, 1 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Latrasse, C.

J. E. Bernard, A. A. Madej, K. J. Siemsen, L. Marmet, C. Latrasse, D. Touahri, M. Poulin, M. Allard, and M. Tetu, Opt. Commun. 173, 357 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Madej, A. A.

J. E. Bernard, A. A. Madej, K. J. Siemsen, L. Marmet, C. Latrasse, D. Touahri, M. Poulin, M. Allard, and M. Tetu, Opt. Commun. 173, 357 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Margolis, H. S.

C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, H. S. Margolis, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, Metrologia 42, 464 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Marmet, L.

J. E. Bernard, A. A. Madej, K. J. Siemsen, L. Marmet, C. Latrasse, D. Touahri, M. Poulin, M. Allard, and M. Tetu, Opt. Commun. 173, 357 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nesi, C.

G. Hagel, C. Nesi, L. Jozefowski, C. Schwob, F. Nez, and F. Biraben, Opt. Commun. 160, 1 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nesmeyanov, A. N.

A. N. Nesmeyanov, Vapor Pressures of the Elements (Academic, 1963).

Nez, F.

G. Hagel, C. Nesi, L. Jozefowski, C. Schwob, F. Nez, and F. Biraben, Opt. Commun. 160, 1 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Onae, A.

K. Sasaki, K. Sugiyama, V. Barychev, and A. Onae, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 39, 5310 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Poulin, M.

J. E. Bernard, A. A. Madej, K. J. Siemsen, L. Marmet, C. Latrasse, D. Touahri, M. Poulin, M. Allard, and M. Tetu, Opt. Commun. 173, 357 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Quinn, T. J.

T. J. Quinn, Metrologia 40, 103 (2003), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Rowley, W. R. C.

C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, H. S. Margolis, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, Metrologia 42, 464 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, K.

K. Sasaki, K. Sugiyama, V. Barychev, and A. Onae, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 39, 5310 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Scholten, R. E.

C. J. Hawthorn, K. P. Weber, and R. E. Scholten, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 4477 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schwob, C.

G. Hagel, C. Nesi, L. Jozefowski, C. Schwob, F. Nez, and F. Biraben, Opt. Commun. 160, 1 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Siemsen, K. J.

J. E. Bernard, A. A. Madej, K. J. Siemsen, L. Marmet, C. Latrasse, D. Touahri, M. Poulin, M. Allard, and M. Tetu, Opt. Commun. 173, 357 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sitz, G. O.

B. Girard, G. O. Sitz, R. N. Zare, N. Billy, and J. Vigue, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 26 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sugiyama, K.

K. Sasaki, K. Sugiyama, V. Barychev, and A. Onae, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 39, 5310 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tetu, M.

J. E. Bernard, A. A. Madej, K. J. Siemsen, L. Marmet, C. Latrasse, D. Touahri, M. Poulin, M. Allard, and M. Tetu, Opt. Commun. 173, 357 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Touahri, D.

J. E. Bernard, A. A. Madej, K. J. Siemsen, L. Marmet, C. Latrasse, D. Touahri, M. Poulin, M. Allard, and M. Tetu, Opt. Commun. 173, 357 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Hilico, R. Felder, D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, and F. Baraben, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 4, 219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vigue, J.

B. Girard, G. O. Sitz, R. N. Zare, N. Billy, and J. Vigue, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 26 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Weber, K. P.

C. J. Hawthorn, K. P. Weber, and R. E. Scholten, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 4477 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zare, R. N.

B. Girard, G. O. Sitz, R. N. Zare, N. Billy, and J. Vigue, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 26 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys.

L. Hilico, R. Felder, D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, and F. Baraben, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 4, 219 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

B. Girard, G. O. Sitz, R. N. Zare, N. Billy, and J. Vigue, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 26 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1

K. Sasaki, K. Sugiyama, V. Barychev, and A. Onae, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 39, 5310 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia

R. Felder, Metrologia 42, 323 (2005), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

T. J. Quinn, Metrologia 40, 103 (2003), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, H. S. Margolis, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, Metrologia 42, 464 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

J. E. Bernard, A. A. Madej, K. J. Siemsen, L. Marmet, C. Latrasse, D. Touahri, M. Poulin, M. Allard, and M. Tetu, Opt. Commun. 173, 357 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Hagel, C. Nesi, L. Jozefowski, C. Schwob, F. Nez, and F. Biraben, Opt. Commun. 160, 1 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys.

G. Grynberg and B. Cagnac, Rep. Prog. Phys. 40, 791 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

C. J. Hawthorn, K. P. Weber, and R. E. Scholten, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 4477 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. N. Nesmeyanov, Vapor Pressures of the Elements (Academic, 1963).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Block diagram of the experimental setup that implements two CTSDLs with a simplified-level diagram. To save space, the electronic part of CTSDL#2 is omitted because most of the elements are similar to that of CTSDL#1. ECDL, extended-cavity diode laser; PP, prism pair; AOM, acousto-optic modulator; FI, Faraday isolator; SFP, scanning Fabry–Perot; ND, set of neutral density filters; TEC, TE cooler. PZT, piezoelectric transducer; FC, frequency counter; HV, high-voltage. ECDL#1 and ECDL#2 are in different optical tables.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Two sample Allan deviation σ ( 2 , τ ) of the beat frequency between two similar CTSDLs. Both horizontal and vertical axes are on a log scale. Inset, absorption signal retrieved from a lock-in amplifier with 1 kHz chopping frequency. (b) The retrieved first derivativelike signal that revealed S/N of 1500 ( 30 ms ) and the frequency stabilizing process using both PZT ( P ) and AOM ( A ) (see text).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Studies on the possible laser frequency shifts. (a) Light shift for beam radius of 0.15 mm . (b) Pressure shift for the cold-finger temperature ranging from 68 ° C to 85 ° C (see text). (c) Modulation shift. (d) Frequency shift between two different polarizations of light. Dashed line, zero input level. Note that, for linear polarization, the height of pedestal to the whole signal was around 1 to 450.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Properties of our CTSDL

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