Abstract

We discuss the impact of large-angle scattering events in highly forward-scattering media on the spatial distribution of the diffusively reflected light. We show that, even for highly forward-scattering media, the reflected light near the incident beam axis is strongly dependent on the small number of large-angle scattering events. Reliable modeling of near-axis reflection thus requires accurate knowledge of the scattering phase function’s behavior at large angles.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2005

2004

2003

A. F. Lewis, M. S. Bell, R. E. Wagner, Q. Su, and R. Grobe, Laser Phys. 13, 207 (2003).

2001

M. J. Wilson and R. K. Wang, J. Phys. B 34, 1453 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

F. Bevilacqua and C. Depeursinge, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2935 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. A. Payne, C. L. Crofcheck, S. E. Nokes, and K. C. Kang, Trans. ASAE 42, 1771 (1999).

1998

1996

1995

L. T. Perelman, J. Wu, W. Wang, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. E 51, 6134 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

L. T. Perelman, J. Wu, I. Itzkan, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1341 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1941

L. G. Henyey and J. L. Greenstein, Astrophys. J. 93, 70 (1941).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

Arhaliass, A.

Bell, M. S.

A. F. Lewis, M. S. Bell, R. E. Wagner, Q. Su, and R. Grobe, Laser Phys. 13, 207 (2003).

Bevilacqua, F.

Bigio, I. J.

Boyer, J.

Campbell, S. D.

S. D. Campbell, S. Menon, G. H. Rutherford, Q. Su, and R. Grobe, 'Scaling of light scattering with density of scatterers,' Laser Phys. (to be published).

Crofcheck, C. L.

F. A. Payne, C. L. Crofcheck, S. E. Nokes, and K. C. Kang, Trans. ASAE 42, 1771 (1999).

Dasari, R. R.

L. T. Perelman, J. Wu, W. Wang, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. E 51, 6134 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Depeursinge, C.

Feld, M. S.

L. T. Perelman, J. Wu, W. Wang, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. E 51, 6134 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Perelman, J. Wu, I. Itzkan, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1341 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gayen, S. K.

Greenstein, J. L.

L. G. Henyey and J. L. Greenstein, Astrophys. J. 93, 70 (1941).
[CrossRef]

Grobe, R.

A. F. Lewis, M. S. Bell, R. E. Wagner, Q. Su, and R. Grobe, Laser Phys. 13, 207 (2003).

S. D. Campbell, S. Menon, G. H. Rutherford, Q. Su, and R. Grobe, 'Scaling of light scattering with density of scatterers,' Laser Phys. (to be published).

Henyey, L. G.

L. G. Henyey and J. L. Greenstein, Astrophys. J. 93, 70 (1941).
[CrossRef]

Hielscher, A. H.

Itzkan, I.

L. T. Perelman, J. Wu, W. Wang, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. E 51, 6134 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Perelman, J. Wu, I. Itzkan, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1341 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, K. C.

F. A. Payne, C. L. Crofcheck, S. E. Nokes, and K. C. Kang, Trans. ASAE 42, 1771 (1999).

Kim, A. D.

Lewis, A. F.

A. F. Lewis, M. S. Bell, R. E. Wagner, Q. Su, and R. Grobe, Laser Phys. 13, 207 (2003).

Menon, S.

S. D. Campbell, S. Menon, G. H. Rutherford, Q. Su, and R. Grobe, 'Scaling of light scattering with density of scatterers,' Laser Phys. (to be published).

Moscoso, M.

Mourant, J. R.

Nokes, S. E.

F. A. Payne, C. L. Crofcheck, S. E. Nokes, and K. C. Kang, Trans. ASAE 42, 1771 (1999).

Payne, F. A.

F. A. Payne, C. L. Crofcheck, S. E. Nokes, and K. C. Kang, Trans. ASAE 42, 1771 (1999).

Perelman, L. T.

L. T. Perelman, J. Wu, W. Wang, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. E 51, 6134 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Perelman, J. Wu, I. Itzkan, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1341 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phillips, K. G.

Rutherford, G. H.

S. D. Campbell, S. Menon, G. H. Rutherford, Q. Su, and R. Grobe, 'Scaling of light scattering with density of scatterers,' Laser Phys. (to be published).

Snabre, P.

Su, Q.

A. F. Lewis, M. S. Bell, R. E. Wagner, Q. Su, and R. Grobe, Laser Phys. 13, 207 (2003).

S. D. Campbell, S. Menon, G. H. Rutherford, Q. Su, and R. Grobe, 'Scaling of light scattering with density of scatterers,' Laser Phys. (to be published).

Wagner, R. E.

A. F. Lewis, M. S. Bell, R. E. Wagner, Q. Su, and R. Grobe, Laser Phys. 13, 207 (2003).

Wang, R. K.

M. J. Wilson and R. K. Wang, J. Phys. B 34, 1453 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

L. T. Perelman, J. Wu, W. Wang, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. E 51, 6134 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, M. J.

M. J. Wilson and R. K. Wang, J. Phys. B 34, 1453 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

L. T. Perelman, J. Wu, W. Wang, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. E 51, 6134 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Perelman, J. Wu, I. Itzkan, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1341 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, M.

Appl. Opt.

Astrophys. J.

L. G. Henyey and J. L. Greenstein, Astrophys. J. 93, 70 (1941).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Phys. B

M. J. Wilson and R. K. Wang, J. Phys. B 34, 1453 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys.

A. F. Lewis, M. S. Bell, R. E. Wagner, Q. Su, and R. Grobe, Laser Phys. 13, 207 (2003).

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. E

L. T. Perelman, J. Wu, W. Wang, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. E 51, 6134 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

L. T. Perelman, J. Wu, I. Itzkan, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1341 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trans. ASAE

F. A. Payne, C. L. Crofcheck, S. E. Nokes, and K. C. Kang, Trans. ASAE 42, 1771 (1999).

Other

S. D. Campbell, S. Menon, G. H. Rutherford, Q. Su, and R. Grobe, 'Scaling of light scattering with density of scatterers,' Laser Phys. (to be published).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Reflected light distribution I ( ρ , z = 0 ) at the exit surface of the medium for (a) exponential phase function P E ( θ ) and (b) HG phase function P H ( θ ) for three anisotropies g based on Monte Carlo simulations. Photons were collected in annular rings of width 0.3 μ s 1 without regard to photon angle. Top inset, typical photon pathways along a semicircle. Bottom inset, comparison of the two scattering phase functions for g = 0.9 . [ μ a μ s = 0.01 ; 4 × 10 7 photons; input Gaussian beam width, 0.5 μ s 1 ; z length of the slab, 70 μ s 1 ].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reflected light distribution I ( ρ , z = 0 ) at the exit surface of the medium for the angularly truncated HG phase function P T ( θ ) for g = 0.9 based on Monte Carlo simulations for various cutoff angles θ c [same parameters as in Fig. 1].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimentally measured distribution of the reflected light for a diluted milk solution for concentrations of 50, 100, or 200 ml of 2% fat milk in 35 l of water. The solution with 200 ml of milk has μ s 0.4 cm 1 and g 0.93 .[12] The complete absence of the dark cone suggests large-angle scatterings. The inset shows the ratio of the light distribution divided by the one for the lowest concentration. [The detection fiber has numerical aperture NA = 0.51 and a diameter of 1.5 mm ].

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