Abstract

We present an instrument based on Purkinje imaging that permits the objective measurement of the amount of scattering associated with the eye’s anterior segment, avoiding the contribution from the retina. The experimental system records the fourth Purkinje image, and adequate processing is used to compute a parameter that quantifies the scattering. The method was first tested in an artificial eye and later in normal young eyes wearing customized contact lenses that induced different amounts of scatter. We were able to detect scattering increments, which indicates that this technique may be used as an objective tool to quantify the level of scattering in the anterior segment of the living human eye. The future use of this technique in clinical environments might help to estimate the level of corneal haze in eyes undergoing refractive surgery or/and scattering within the lens during cataract development.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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2006

L. Franssen, J. E. Coppens, and T. J. T. P. van den Berg, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 768 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Díaz-Doutón, A. Benito, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, J. L. Güell, and P. Artal, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 1710 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Tabernero, A. Benito, V. Nourrit, and P. Artal, Opt. Express 14, 10945 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

2003

J. Buhren and T. Kohnen, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 2007 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

T. Kuroda, T. Fujikado, S. Ninomiya, N. Maeda, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, J. Refract. Surg. 18, S598 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001

2000

T. Möller-Pedersen, H. D. Cavanagh, W. Matthew Petroll, and J. V. Jester, Ophthalmology 107, 1235 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

T. Möller-Pedersen, H. F. Li, W. M. Petroll, H. D. Cavanagh, and J. V. Jester, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 487 (1998).

M. L. Hennelly, J. L. Barbur, D. F. Edgar, and E. G. Woodward, Optom. Vision Sci. 18, 197 (1998).

S. W. Chang, A. Benson, and D. T. Azar, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 24, 1064 (1998).

1995

1993

L. T. Chylack, Jr., J. K. Wolfe, D. M. Singer, M. C. Leske, M. A. Bullimore, I. L. Bailey, J. Friend, D. McCarthy, and S. Y. Wu, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 111, 831 (1993).

1992

P. W. de Waard, J. K. Ijspeert, T. J. van den Berg, and P. T. de Jong, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 33, 618 (1992).

Appl. Opt.

Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago)

L. T. Chylack, Jr., J. K. Wolfe, D. M. Singer, M. C. Leske, M. A. Bullimore, I. L. Bailey, J. Friend, D. McCarthy, and S. Y. Wu, Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 111, 831 (1993).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci.

T. Möller-Pedersen, H. F. Li, W. M. Petroll, H. D. Cavanagh, and J. V. Jester, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 487 (1998).

F. Díaz-Doutón, A. Benito, J. Pujol, M. Arjona, J. L. Güell, and P. Artal, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 1710 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. W. de Waard, J. K. Ijspeert, T. J. van den Berg, and P. T. de Jong, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 33, 618 (1992).

L. Franssen, J. E. Coppens, and T. J. T. P. van den Berg, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 768 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Cataract Refractive Surg.

S. W. Chang, A. Benson, and D. T. Azar, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 24, 1064 (1998).

J. Buhren and T. Kohnen, J. Cataract Refractive Surg. 29, 2007 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Refract. Surg.

T. Kuroda, T. Fujikado, S. Ninomiya, N. Maeda, Y. Hirohara, and T. Mihashi, J. Refract. Surg. 18, S598 (2002).
[PubMed]

J. Vision

P. Artal, A. Guirao, E. Berrio, and D. R. Williams, J. Vision 1, 1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmology

T. Möller-Pedersen, H. D. Cavanagh, W. Matthew Petroll, and J. V. Jester, Ophthalmology 107, 1235 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Optom. Vision Sci.

M. L. Hennelly, J. L. Barbur, D. F. Edgar, and E. G. Woodward, Optom. Vision Sci. 18, 197 (1998).

Vision Res.

J. M. Bueno, Vision Res. 41, 2687 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

E. Alcon, A. Benito, G. M. Perez, A. De Casas, S. Abenza, S. Luque, J. Pujol, J. M. Marin, and P. Artal, 2007 Annual Meeting Abstract and Program Planner, www.arvo.org, abstract 3822.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the Purkinje imaging system. AP, aperture to set the size of the beam reaching the eye (this filled the entire pupil). Other abbreviations defined in text. The artificial eye was mounted on translation stages to facilitate its alignment.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Registered image for the human living eye showing the first (circled) and the fourth (squared) Purkinje images. The image size is 4.5 mm × 4.5 mm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scatter-customized contact lenses (left, CL#1; right, CL#5). Both have the same power ( 0 D ) , radius ( 7.8 mm ) , diameter ( 9.2 mm ) , and thickness ( 0.225 mm ) . The concentration of microspheres responsible for the amount of scatter introduced was 0 (CL#1) and 0.00109 g ml (CL#5).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Images of the fourth Purkinje image in subject #7 for nonsaturated (left) and saturated (right) conditions with both CLs. Each image subtends 0.8 mm .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

POS values for 8 control naked eyes and the artificial eye with CL#1.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Values of POS for subjects #7, #8, and the artificial eye, wearing the two scatter-customized CLs. The average POS for the (naked) control eyes computed from data in Fig. 5 has also been included as a comparison.

Equations (1)

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POS = k ̱ sat k ̱ nonsat .

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