Abstract

We propose and demonstrate a novel differential two-signal technique of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging microscopy using a picosecond (ps) optical parametric oscillator (OPO). By adjusting a Lyot filter inside the cavity, we operated the OPO oscillating in two stable modes separated by a few nanometers. The CARS images generated by the two modes are separated by a spectrograph behind the microscope setup, and their differential image is directly obtained by balanced lock-in detection. The feasibility of the technique is experimentally verified by imaging micrometer-sized polystyrene beads immersed in water.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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2006 (4)

2005 (1)

L. Li, H. Wang, and J. X. Cheng, Biophys. J. 89, 3480 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1505 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-X. Cheng, Y. K. Jia, G. Zheng, and X. S. Xie, Biophys. J. 83, 502 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

1977 (1)

Z. A. Yasa, A. Dienes, and J. R. Whinnery, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 24 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

Z. A. Yasa, A. Dienes, and J. R. Whinnery, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 24 (1977).
[CrossRef]

M. Jurna, J. P. Korterik, H. L. Offerhaus, and C. Otto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1505 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (2)

J.-X. Cheng, Y. K. Jia, G. Zheng, and X. S. Xie, Biophys. J. 83, 502 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Li, H. Wang, and J. X. Cheng, Biophys. J. 89, 3480 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Science (1)

X. S. Xie, J. Yu, and W. Y. Yang, Science 312, 228 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the DTSP-CARS imaging microscope. DM, dichroic mirror; OL1, focusing objective lens; OL2, collecting objective lens; M, high-reflectivity dielectric mirror; PMT, photomultiplier tube; ND, neutral-density filter. Inset, typical spectrum of the pump beam delivered from the OPO in dual-mode operation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

CARS spectrum of the polystyrene bead samples of 3 μ m diameter. The filled circles are measured by tuning the single-mode OPO, and the solid curve calculated by using Eq. (1). The two arrows indicate the Raman shift frequencies adjusted for the dual-mode DTSP-CARS experiment.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental results of the dual-mode DTSP-CARS imaging microscopy in comparison with the normal single-mode CARS results: (a), (b) DTSP-CARS images; (c), (d) single-mode CARS images at the peak frequency; (e), (f) single-mode CARS images at the background frequency; (g), (h) lateral and axial intensity profiles. See text for details.

Equations (1)

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I CARS ( ω p ω s ) χ R ( 3 ) ( ω p ω s ) + χ NR ( 3 ) 2 ,

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