Abstract

The concept of adiabatic mode transformation between silicon waveguide and surface plasmon-polariton modes in subwavelength metal-dielectric slots is investigated. The mode transformer consists of a modulated-index slot region, which is bound by two metal slabs. Using the design scheme, we will show that the optical dispersion of a modulated-index metal slot waveguide can be engineered well above the silicon light-line on a large wavelength region, allowing direct phase-matching between surface plasmon polaritons and traditional waveguide modes. Based on full-field, finite difference simulations, we demonstrate that reversible mode conversion can be achieved within submicrometer length scales.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. Z. Yu, G. Veronis, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 151116 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. B. Crozier, S. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4632 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. Anderson, A. Bouhelier, and L. Novotny, J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8, S227 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Z. Rashid, M. D. Selker, P. B. Catrysse, and M. L. Brongersma, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 2442 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, Phys. Rev. B 73, 035407 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. N. Feng, M. L. Brongersma, and L. Dal Negro, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 479 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. N. N. Feng, G. R. Zhou, C. L. Xu, and W. P. Huang, J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1976 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E.D.Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

2007 (1)

N. N. Feng, M. L. Brongersma, and L. Dal Negro, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 479 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (6)

L. Chen, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, Opt. Lett. 31, 2133 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ozbay, Science 311, 189 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, and M. L. Brongersma, Mater. Today 9, 27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yu, G. Veronis, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 151116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Anderson, A. Bouhelier, and L. Novotny, J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8, S227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, Phys. Rev. B 73, 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereus, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Crozier, S. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 13, 1501 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

1985 (1)

E.D.Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

Anderson, N.

N. Anderson, A. Bouhelier, and L. Novotny, J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8, S227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, Phys. Rev. B 73, 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 13, 1501 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereus, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouhelier, A.

N. Anderson, A. Bouhelier, and L. Novotny, J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8, S227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

N. N. Feng, M. L. Brongersma, and L. Dal Negro, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 479 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, and M. L. Brongersma, Mater. Today 9, 27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yu, G. Veronis, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 151116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Rashid, M. D. Selker, P. B. Catrysse, and M. L. Brongersma, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 2442 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 13, 1501 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Catrysse, P. B.

Chen, L.

Crozier, K. B.

K. B. Crozier, S. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dal Negro, L.

N. N. Feng, M. L. Brongersma, and L. Dal Negro, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 479 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dereus, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereus, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dionne, J. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, Phys. Rev. B 73, 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereus, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

Z. Yu, G. Veronis, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 151116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Feng, N. N.

N. N. Feng, M. L. Brongersma, and L. Dal Negro, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 479 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Feng, G. R. Zhou, C. L. Xu, and W. P. Huang, J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1976 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W. P.

Kik, P. G.

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 13, 1501 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kino, G. S.

K. B. Crozier, S. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Maier, S. A.

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 13, 1501 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Meltzer, S.

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 13, 1501 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

N. Anderson, A. Bouhelier, and L. Novotny, J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8, S227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ozbay, E.

E. Ozbay, Science 311, 189 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polman, A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, Phys. Rev. B 73, 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Quate, C. F.

K. B. Crozier, S. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

Rashid, Z.

Requicha, A. A. G.

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 13, 1501 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schuller, J. A.

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, and M. L. Brongersma, Mater. Today 9, 27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Selker, M. D.

Shakya, J.

Sundaramurthy, S.

K. B. Crozier, S. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sweatlock, L. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, Phys. Rev. B 73, 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Veronis, G.

Z. Yu, G. Veronis, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 151116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C. L.

Yu, Z.

Z. Yu, G. Veronis, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 151116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, G. R.

Zia, R.

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, and M. L. Brongersma, Mater. Today 9, 27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) (1)

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 13, 1501 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Z. Yu, G. Veronis, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 151116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

N. N. Feng, M. L. Brongersma, and L. Dal Negro, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 479 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. B. Crozier, S. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

N. Anderson, A. Bouhelier, and L. Novotny, J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8, S227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Mater. Today (1)

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, and M. L. Brongersma, Mater. Today 9, 27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereus, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, Phys. Rev. B 73, 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

E. Ozbay, Science 311, 189 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

E.D.Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of the proposed SPP mode transformer: (a) cross sections (z cut) of the structure at different locations, (b) top view of the structure (y cut), (c) top-view field distribution (y cut at the center of the waveguide) simulated by 3D FDTD, and (d) cross-section views of the field at the launch position and at the center of the structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dispersion relations of the metal slot transformer calculated at the B B cut as shown in Fig. 1a for different gap distances w s . The SiO 2 gap region separates the metal (Ag) from the high index (Si) waveguide core.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SPP mode transformer calculated optical power transmission versus the low-index gap width for TE and TM polarizations. The inset shows the electric field profile for TM polarization corresponding to a gap width of 100 nm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated optical power transmission versus (a) taper end width w t and (b) operating wavelength for normal Si waveguide tapers and Si waveguide tapers with metal slots (SPP transformer).

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