Abstract

A miniature in-line fiber-optic Fabry–Perot etalon is fabricated on a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) by using 157nm laser micromachining for the first time to our knowledge. Experimental results show that such a PCF-based etalon has an excellent fringe visibility of up to 26dB due to the mirror-finish quality of the two cavity surfaces inside the PCF. This etalon can be used as an ideal sensor for precise strain measurement under high temperature of up to 800°C. It can also offer some other outstanding advantages, such as fast and easy fabrication, high reproducibility, capacity of mass production, low cost, low temperature–strain cross-sensitivity, and high signal-to-noise ratio.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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Z. Y. Huang, Y. Z. Zhu, X. P. Chen, and A. B. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

A. C. R. Grayson, R. S. Shawgo, A. M. Johnson, N. T. Flynn, L. I. Yawen, M. J. Cima, and R. A. Langer, Proc. IEEE 92, 6 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

P. Russell, Science 299, 358 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

J. Z. Li, P. R. Herman, M. D. Wei, K. P. Chen, J. Ihlemann, G. Marowsky, P. Oesterlin, and B. Burghardt, Proc. SPIE 4637, 228 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

V. Milman, B. Winkler, J. A. White, C. J. Pickard, M. C. Payne, E. V. Akhamtskaya, and R. H. Nobes, Int. J. Quantum Chem. 77, 895 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

Y. J. Rao, Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 355 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kikuchi, H. Sudo, and N. Kuzuu, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 4121 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

V. Bhatia, M. B. Sen, K. A. Murphy, and R. O. Claus, Electron. Lett. 32, 247 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Kao and H. F. Tayler, Opt. Lett. 21, 615 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1989 (1)

B. Culshaw and J. Dakin, Optical Fiber Sensors: Systems and Applications (Artech, 1989), Vol. 2.

1983 (1)

A. D. Kersey, D. A. Jackson, and M. Corke, Opt. Commun. 45, 71 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Akhamtskaya, E. V.

V. Milman, B. Winkler, J. A. White, C. J. Pickard, M. C. Payne, E. V. Akhamtskaya, and R. H. Nobes, Int. J. Quantum Chem. 77, 895 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Berkoff, T. A.

Bhatia, V.

V. Bhatia, M. B. Sen, K. A. Murphy, and R. O. Claus, Electron. Lett. 32, 247 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brennan, D. D.

Burghardt, B.

J. Z. Li, P. R. Herman, M. D. Wei, K. P. Chen, J. Ihlemann, G. Marowsky, P. Oesterlin, and B. Burghardt, Proc. SPIE 4637, 228 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. P.

J. Z. Li, P. R. Herman, M. D. Wei, K. P. Chen, J. Ihlemann, G. Marowsky, P. Oesterlin, and B. Burghardt, Proc. SPIE 4637, 228 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. P.

X. P. Chen, F. B. Shen, Z. Wang, Z. Y. Huang, and A. B. Wang, Appl. Opt. 45, 7760 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Huang, Y. Z. Zhu, X. P. Chen, and A. B. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cima, M. J.

A. C. R. Grayson, R. S. Shawgo, A. M. Johnson, N. T. Flynn, L. I. Yawen, M. J. Cima, and R. A. Langer, Proc. IEEE 92, 6 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Claus, R. O.

V. Bhatia, M. B. Sen, K. A. Murphy, and R. O. Claus, Electron. Lett. 32, 247 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Corke, M.

A. D. Kersey, D. A. Jackson, and M. Corke, Opt. Commun. 45, 71 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Culshaw, B.

B. Culshaw and J. Dakin, Optical Fiber Sensors: Systems and Applications (Artech, 1989), Vol. 2.

Dakin, J.

B. Culshaw and J. Dakin, Optical Fiber Sensors: Systems and Applications (Artech, 1989), Vol. 2.

Flynn, N. T.

A. C. R. Grayson, R. S. Shawgo, A. M. Johnson, N. T. Flynn, L. I. Yawen, M. J. Cima, and R. A. Langer, Proc. IEEE 92, 6 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Friebele, E. J.

Grayson, A. C. R.

A. C. R. Grayson, R. S. Shawgo, A. M. Johnson, N. T. Flynn, L. I. Yawen, M. J. Cima, and R. A. Langer, Proc. IEEE 92, 6 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Herman, P. R.

J. Z. Li, P. R. Herman, M. D. Wei, K. P. Chen, J. Ihlemann, G. Marowsky, P. Oesterlin, and B. Burghardt, Proc. SPIE 4637, 228 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Z. Y.

X. P. Chen, F. B. Shen, Z. Wang, Z. Y. Huang, and A. B. Wang, Appl. Opt. 45, 7760 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Huang, Y. Z. Zhu, X. P. Chen, and A. B. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ihlemann, J.

J. Z. Li, P. R. Herman, M. D. Wei, K. P. Chen, J. Ihlemann, G. Marowsky, P. Oesterlin, and B. Burghardt, Proc. SPIE 4637, 228 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, D. A.

A. D. Kersey, D. A. Jackson, and M. Corke, Opt. Commun. 45, 71 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, A. M.

A. C. R. Grayson, R. S. Shawgo, A. M. Johnson, N. T. Flynn, L. I. Yawen, M. J. Cima, and R. A. Langer, Proc. IEEE 92, 6 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kao, T. W.

Kersey, A. D.

Kikuchi, Y.

Y. Kikuchi, H. Sudo, and N. Kuzuu, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 4121 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kuzuu, N.

Y. Kikuchi, H. Sudo, and N. Kuzuu, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 4121 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Langer, R. A.

A. C. R. Grayson, R. S. Shawgo, A. M. Johnson, N. T. Flynn, L. I. Yawen, M. J. Cima, and R. A. Langer, Proc. IEEE 92, 6 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, J. Z.

J. Z. Li, P. R. Herman, M. D. Wei, K. P. Chen, J. Ihlemann, G. Marowsky, P. Oesterlin, and B. Burghardt, Proc. SPIE 4637, 228 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marowsky, G.

J. Z. Li, P. R. Herman, M. D. Wei, K. P. Chen, J. Ihlemann, G. Marowsky, P. Oesterlin, and B. Burghardt, Proc. SPIE 4637, 228 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Milman, V.

V. Milman, B. Winkler, J. A. White, C. J. Pickard, M. C. Payne, E. V. Akhamtskaya, and R. H. Nobes, Int. J. Quantum Chem. 77, 895 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, K. A.

V. Bhatia, M. B. Sen, K. A. Murphy, and R. O. Claus, Electron. Lett. 32, 247 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nobes, R. H.

V. Milman, B. Winkler, J. A. White, C. J. Pickard, M. C. Payne, E. V. Akhamtskaya, and R. H. Nobes, Int. J. Quantum Chem. 77, 895 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Oesterlin, P.

J. Z. Li, P. R. Herman, M. D. Wei, K. P. Chen, J. Ihlemann, G. Marowsky, P. Oesterlin, and B. Burghardt, Proc. SPIE 4637, 228 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Payne, M. C.

V. Milman, B. Winkler, J. A. White, C. J. Pickard, M. C. Payne, E. V. Akhamtskaya, and R. H. Nobes, Int. J. Quantum Chem. 77, 895 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pickard, C. J.

V. Milman, B. Winkler, J. A. White, C. J. Pickard, M. C. Payne, E. V. Akhamtskaya, and R. H. Nobes, Int. J. Quantum Chem. 77, 895 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Putman, M. A.

Rao, Y. J.

Y. J. Rao, Opt. Fiber Technol. 12, 227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Rao, Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 355 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P.

P. Russell, Science 299, 358 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sen, M. B.

V. Bhatia, M. B. Sen, K. A. Murphy, and R. O. Claus, Electron. Lett. 32, 247 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shawgo, R. S.

A. C. R. Grayson, R. S. Shawgo, A. M. Johnson, N. T. Flynn, L. I. Yawen, M. J. Cima, and R. A. Langer, Proc. IEEE 92, 6 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shen, F. B.

Sirkis, J. S.

Sudo, H.

Y. Kikuchi, H. Sudo, and N. Kuzuu, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 4121 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tayler, H. F.

Wang, A. B.

X. P. Chen, F. B. Shen, Z. Wang, Z. Y. Huang, and A. B. Wang, Appl. Opt. 45, 7760 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Huang, Y. Z. Zhu, X. P. Chen, and A. B. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Wei, M. D.

J. Z. Li, P. R. Herman, M. D. Wei, K. P. Chen, J. Ihlemann, G. Marowsky, P. Oesterlin, and B. Burghardt, Proc. SPIE 4637, 228 (2002).
[CrossRef]

White, J. A.

V. Milman, B. Winkler, J. A. White, C. J. Pickard, M. C. Payne, E. V. Akhamtskaya, and R. H. Nobes, Int. J. Quantum Chem. 77, 895 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Winkler, B.

V. Milman, B. Winkler, J. A. White, C. J. Pickard, M. C. Payne, E. V. Akhamtskaya, and R. H. Nobes, Int. J. Quantum Chem. 77, 895 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yawen, L. I.

A. C. R. Grayson, R. S. Shawgo, A. M. Johnson, N. T. Flynn, L. I. Yawen, M. J. Cima, and R. A. Langer, Proc. IEEE 92, 6 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y. Z.

Z. Y. Huang, Y. Z. Zhu, X. P. Chen, and A. B. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

V. Bhatia, M. B. Sen, K. A. Murphy, and R. O. Claus, Electron. Lett. 32, 247 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Z. Y. Huang, Y. Z. Zhu, X. P. Chen, and A. B. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Quantum Chem. (1)

V. Milman, B. Winkler, J. A. White, C. J. Pickard, M. C. Payne, E. V. Akhamtskaya, and R. H. Nobes, Int. J. Quantum Chem. 77, 895 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Kikuchi, H. Sudo, and N. Kuzuu, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 4121 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

Y. J. Rao, Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 355 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. D. Kersey, D. A. Jackson, and M. Corke, Opt. Commun. 45, 71 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

Y. J. Rao, Opt. Fiber Technol. 12, 227 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. IEEE (1)

A. C. R. Grayson, R. S. Shawgo, A. M. Johnson, N. T. Flynn, L. I. Yawen, M. J. Cima, and R. A. Langer, Proc. IEEE 92, 6 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. Z. Li, P. R. Herman, M. D. Wei, K. P. Chen, J. Ihlemann, G. Marowsky, P. Oesterlin, and B. Burghardt, Proc. SPIE 4637, 228 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

P. Russell, Science 299, 358 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

B. Culshaw and J. Dakin, Optical Fiber Sensors: Systems and Applications (Artech, 1989), Vol. 2.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Calculated absorption spectrum of silica based on the first-principle method.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the micromachining system with a 157 nm excimer laser.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photos and reflective spectrum of the PCF F–P etalon. (a) Scaning electron microspcope photos of the PCF and etalon, (b) longitudinal section view of the cavity, (c) reflective spectrum of PCF F–P etalon.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cavity length distribution for a 20 piece sensor with the same fabrication parameters.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Strain and temperature characteristics of PCF F–P strain sensor: (a) strain characteristics of PCF sensor at different temperature, (b) temperature response of the sensor.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

L 0 = D 2 R tan ( γ ) = D 2 R ( F th F 2 F th 2 ) ,
L = 1 2 λ 1 λ 2 ( λ 2 λ 1 ) ,

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