Abstract

We transfer an optical frequency over 251km of optical fiber with a residual instability of 6×1019 at 100s. This instability and the associated timing jitter are limited fundamentally by the noise on the optical fiber and the link length. We give a simple expression for calculating the achievable instability and jitter over a fiber link. Transfer of optical stability over this long distance requires a highly coherent optical source, provided here by a cw fiber laser locked to a high finesse optical cavity. A sufficient optical carrier signal is delivered to the remote fiber end by incorporating two-way, in-line erbium-doped fiber amplifiers to balance the 62dB link loss.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 1, 283 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Grosche, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, S. Bize, M. Lours, F. Narbonneau, A. Clairon, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics (CLEO) 2007 Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CMKK1.
    [PubMed]
  3. S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clarion, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. C. Bergquist, W. M. Itano, and D. J. Wineland, in International School of Physics ''Enrico Fermi'' (North-Holland, 1992).
  6. L. S. Ma, P. Jungner, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, Opt. Lett. 19, 1777 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Ye, J.-L. Peng, R. J. Jones, K. W. Holman, J. L. Hall, D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. Bize, J. C. Bergquist, L. W. Hollberg, L. Robertsson, and L.-S. Ma, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1459 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. R. Newbury and W. C. Swann, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1756 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Foreman, A. D. Ludlow, M. H. G. d. Miranda, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, and J. Ye, arXiv.org e-print archive, atom-ph/0707.0096, submitted 1 July 2007, http://arxiv.org/abs/atom-ph/0707.0096.
  10. S. T. Dawkins, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 918 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. B. S. Sheard, M. B. Gray, and D. E. McClelland, Appl. Opt. 45, 8491 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. T. Okoshi and K. Kikuchi, Coherent Optical Fiber Communications (KTK Scientific, 1988).
  13. W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. Bergquist, and N. R. Newbury, in Proceedings of 2007 LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (IEEE, 2007), p. WC2.3.

2007 (6)

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 1, 283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Grosche, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, S. Bize, M. Lours, F. Narbonneau, A. Clairon, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics (CLEO) 2007 Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CMKK1.
[PubMed]

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. R. Newbury and W. C. Swann, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1756 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Dawkins, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 918 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. Bergquist, and N. R. Newbury, in Proceedings of 2007 LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (IEEE, 2007), p. WC2.3.

2006 (2)

B. S. Sheard, M. B. Gray, and D. E. McClelland, Appl. Opt. 45, 8491 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clarion, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

J. C. Bergquist, W. M. Itano, and D. J. Wineland, in International School of Physics ''Enrico Fermi'' (North-Holland, 1992).

1988 (1)

T. Okoshi and K. Kikuchi, Coherent Optical Fiber Communications (KTK Scientific, 1988).

Amy-Klein, A.

G. Grosche, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, S. Bize, M. Lours, F. Narbonneau, A. Clairon, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics (CLEO) 2007 Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CMKK1.
[PubMed]

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clarion, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bergquist, J.

W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. Bergquist, and N. R. Newbury, in Proceedings of 2007 LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (IEEE, 2007), p. WC2.3.

Bergquist, J. C.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 1, 283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye, J.-L. Peng, R. J. Jones, K. W. Holman, J. L. Hall, D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. Bize, J. C. Bergquist, L. W. Hollberg, L. Robertsson, and L.-S. Ma, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1459 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Bergquist, W. M. Itano, and D. J. Wineland, in International School of Physics ''Enrico Fermi'' (North-Holland, 1992).

Bize, S.

G. Grosche, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, S. Bize, M. Lours, F. Narbonneau, A. Clairon, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics (CLEO) 2007 Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CMKK1.
[PubMed]

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clarion, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye, J.-L. Peng, R. J. Jones, K. W. Holman, J. L. Hall, D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. Bize, J. C. Bergquist, L. W. Hollberg, L. Robertsson, and L.-S. Ma, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1459 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chardonnet, C.

G. Grosche, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, S. Bize, M. Lours, F. Narbonneau, A. Clairon, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics (CLEO) 2007 Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CMKK1.
[PubMed]

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clarion, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Clairon, A.

G. Grosche, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, S. Bize, M. Lours, F. Narbonneau, A. Clairon, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics (CLEO) 2007 Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CMKK1.
[PubMed]

Clarion, A.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clarion, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Coddington, I.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 1, 283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Coq, Y. L.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 1, 283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Daussy, C.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clarion, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dawkins, S. T.

S. T. Dawkins, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 918 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diddams, S. A.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 1, 283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye, J.-L. Peng, R. J. Jones, K. W. Holman, J. L. Hall, D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. Bize, J. C. Bergquist, L. W. Hollberg, L. Robertsson, and L.-S. Ma, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1459 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Foreman, A. D. Ludlow, M. H. G. d. Miranda, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, and J. Ye, arXiv.org e-print archive, atom-ph/0707.0096, submitted 1 July 2007, http://arxiv.org/abs/atom-ph/0707.0096.

Feder, K. S.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 1, 283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Foreman, S.

S. Foreman, A. D. Ludlow, M. H. G. d. Miranda, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, and J. Ye, arXiv.org e-print archive, atom-ph/0707.0096, submitted 1 July 2007, http://arxiv.org/abs/atom-ph/0707.0096.

Foreman, S. M.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gray, M. B.

Grosche, G.

G. Grosche, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, S. Bize, M. Lours, F. Narbonneau, A. Clairon, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics (CLEO) 2007 Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CMKK1.
[PubMed]

Hall, J. L.

Hollberg, L. W.

Holman, K. W.

Hudson, D. D.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itano, W. M.

J. C. Bergquist, W. M. Itano, and D. J. Wineland, in International School of Physics ''Enrico Fermi'' (North-Holland, 1992).

Jones, D. J.

Jones, R. J.

Jungner, P.

Kikuchi, K.

T. Okoshi and K. Kikuchi, Coherent Optical Fiber Communications (KTK Scientific, 1988).

Kitching, J.

Lemonde, P.

G. Grosche, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, S. Bize, M. Lours, F. Narbonneau, A. Clairon, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics (CLEO) 2007 Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CMKK1.
[PubMed]

Lipphardt, B.

G. Grosche, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, S. Bize, M. Lours, F. Narbonneau, A. Clairon, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics (CLEO) 2007 Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CMKK1.
[PubMed]

Lopez, O.

G. Grosche, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, S. Bize, M. Lours, F. Narbonneau, A. Clairon, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics (CLEO) 2007 Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CMKK1.
[PubMed]

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clarion, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lorini, L.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 1, 283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. Bergquist, and N. R. Newbury, in Proceedings of 2007 LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (IEEE, 2007), p. WC2.3.

Lours, M.

G. Grosche, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, S. Bize, M. Lours, F. Narbonneau, A. Clairon, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics (CLEO) 2007 Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CMKK1.
[PubMed]

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clarion, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ludlow, A. D.

S. Foreman, A. D. Ludlow, M. H. G. d. Miranda, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, and J. Ye, arXiv.org e-print archive, atom-ph/0707.0096, submitted 1 July 2007, http://arxiv.org/abs/atom-ph/0707.0096.

Luiten, A. N.

S. T. Dawkins, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 918 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, L. S.

Ma, L.-S.

McClelland, D. E.

McFerran, J. J.

S. T. Dawkins, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 918 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miranda, M. H. G. d.

S. Foreman, A. D. Ludlow, M. H. G. d. Miranda, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, and J. Ye, arXiv.org e-print archive, atom-ph/0707.0096, submitted 1 July 2007, http://arxiv.org/abs/atom-ph/0707.0096.

Narbonneau, F.

G. Grosche, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, S. Bize, M. Lours, F. Narbonneau, A. Clairon, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics (CLEO) 2007 Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CMKK1.
[PubMed]

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clarion, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Newbury, N. R.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 1, 283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. R. Newbury and W. C. Swann, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1756 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. Bergquist, and N. R. Newbury, in Proceedings of 2007 LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (IEEE, 2007), p. WC2.3.

Nicholson, J. W.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 1, 283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oates, C. W.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 1, 283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Okoshi, T.

T. Okoshi and K. Kikuchi, Coherent Optical Fiber Communications (KTK Scientific, 1988).

Peng, J.-L.

Quraishi, Q.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 1, 283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Robertsson, L.

Santarelli, G.

G. Grosche, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, S. Bize, M. Lours, F. Narbonneau, A. Clairon, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics (CLEO) 2007 Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CMKK1.
[PubMed]

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clarion, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schnatz, H.

G. Grosche, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, S. Bize, M. Lours, F. Narbonneau, A. Clairon, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics (CLEO) 2007 Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CMKK1.
[PubMed]

Sheard, B. S.

Stalnaker, J. E.

S. Foreman, A. D. Ludlow, M. H. G. d. Miranda, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, and J. Ye, arXiv.org e-print archive, atom-ph/0707.0096, submitted 1 July 2007, http://arxiv.org/abs/atom-ph/0707.0096.

Swann, W. C.

N. R. Newbury and W. C. Swann, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1756 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. Bergquist, and N. R. Newbury, in Proceedings of 2007 LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (IEEE, 2007), p. WC2.3.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 1, 283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Westbrook, P. S.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 1, 283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wineland, D. J.

J. C. Bergquist, W. M. Itano, and D. J. Wineland, in International School of Physics ''Enrico Fermi'' (North-Holland, 1992).

Ye, J.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ye, J.-L. Peng, R. J. Jones, K. W. Holman, J. L. Hall, D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. Bize, J. C. Bergquist, L. W. Hollberg, L. Robertsson, and L.-S. Ma, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1459 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Ma, P. Jungner, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, Opt. Lett. 19, 1777 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Foreman, A. D. Ludlow, M. H. G. d. Miranda, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, and J. Ye, arXiv.org e-print archive, atom-ph/0707.0096, submitted 1 July 2007, http://arxiv.org/abs/atom-ph/0707.0096.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control (1)

S. T. Dawkins, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 918 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nat. Photonics (1)

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. C. Bergquist, Y. L. Coq, C. W. Oates, Q. Quraishi, K. S. Feder, J. W. Nicholson, P. S. Westbrook, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, Nat. Photonics 1, 283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clarion, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

J. C. Bergquist, W. M. Itano, and D. J. Wineland, in International School of Physics ''Enrico Fermi'' (North-Holland, 1992).

G. Grosche, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, S. Bize, M. Lours, F. Narbonneau, A. Clairon, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics (CLEO) 2007 Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CMKK1.
[PubMed]

S. Foreman, A. D. Ludlow, M. H. G. d. Miranda, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, and J. Ye, arXiv.org e-print archive, atom-ph/0707.0096, submitted 1 July 2007, http://arxiv.org/abs/atom-ph/0707.0096.

T. Okoshi and K. Kikuchi, Coherent Optical Fiber Communications (KTK Scientific, 1988).

W. C. Swann, L. Lorini, J. Bergquist, and N. R. Newbury, in Proceedings of 2007 LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (IEEE, 2007), p. WC2.3.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

System layout. Heavy solid lines are fiber paths, thin lines are free-space optical paths, and dotted lines are electrical paths. AOM, acousto-optic modulator; triangles, EDFAs; bpf, bandpass filter at 1535 to reduce amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) buildup; 50%, partially reflecting Faraday mirror. Inset, optical time-domain reflectometry (OTDR) trace of one 38 km traverse of the BRAN. Each peak represents a location where the fiber came above ground into a building with a patch panel.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Residual phase noise (left axis) and timing noise (right axis) of the fiber link measured on the unlocked one-way signal, S fiber (solid, black line); the one-way locked signal, S Locked (solid, blue curve); and the round-trip locked signal, S Locked , RT (dashed, green curve) for the 251 km link. The fiber noise falls off as 1 f 2 (dotted curve) up to 1 kHz . The spikes on the locked noise occur at harmonics of f = 1 ( 4 τ ) = 210 Hz . Inset, measured timing jitter with (solid squares), and without (open circles), the contribution from servo spikes, and the predicted jitter from Eq. (2) (solid curve).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Residual fractional frequency uncertainty for the one-way (solid squares) and round-trip (open squares) signals over the 251 km link, and the system noise floor for the one-way (solid circles) and round-trip (open circles) as measured for a 0 km link. Inset, measured (solid squares) and predicted (line) uncertainty versus link length.

Equations (2)

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σ ν = ν 1 8 a h τ t gate 3 2 ,
t jitter ν 1 a h f c τ ,

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