Abstract

Image contrast enhancement, high lateral resolution, and height information are obtained with induced polarization evanescent imaging using a solid immersion lens. Experiments are conducted by imaging features on a patterned Si substrate. Imaging theory is used to predict optimum orientation of high-spatial-frequency samples, and a topographical image is derived from the induced polarization image through a calibration procedure. A numerical aperture of 1.5 is used in the experiment. Height accuracy of ±2nm is demonstrated with a known sample.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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2005 (1)

Z. H. Liu, B. B. Goldberg, S. B. Ippolito, A. N. Vamivakas, M. S. Unlu, and R. Mirin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 071905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

T. Ishimoto, K. Saito, M. Shinoda, T. Kondo, A. Nakaoki, and M. Yamamoto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 42, 2719 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

T. Chen, T. D. Milster, S. K. Park, B. McCarthy, D. Sarid, C. Poweleit, and J. Menendez, Opt. Eng. 45, 103002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

E. H. K. Stelzer, J. Microsc. 189, 15 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

1990 (1)

S. M. Mansfield and G. S. Kino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2615 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

B. Richards and E. Wolf, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 253, 358 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T.

T. Chen, T. D. Milster, S. K. Park, B. McCarthy, D. Sarid, C. Poweleit, and J. Menendez, Opt. Eng. 45, 103002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Corle, T. R.

Flagello, D. G.

Goldberg, B. B.

Z. H. Liu, B. B. Goldberg, S. B. Ippolito, A. N. Vamivakas, M. S. Unlu, and R. Mirin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 071905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hirota, K.

Ippolito, S. B.

Z. H. Liu, B. B. Goldberg, S. B. Ippolito, A. N. Vamivakas, M. S. Unlu, and R. Mirin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 071905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ishimoto, T.

T. Ishimoto, K. Saito, M. Shinoda, T. Kondo, A. Nakaoki, and M. Yamamoto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 42, 2719 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jo, J. S.

Kaack, T. R.

Kino, G. S.

S. M. Mansfield and G. S. Kino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2615 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, T.

T. Ishimoto, K. Saito, M. Shinoda, T. Kondo, A. Nakaoki, and M. Yamamoto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 42, 2719 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lacomb, L. J.

Liu, Z. H.

Z. H. Liu, B. B. Goldberg, S. B. Ippolito, A. N. Vamivakas, M. S. Unlu, and R. Mirin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 071905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Macleod, H. A.

H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters (McGraw-Hill, 1989).

Mansfield, S. M.

S. M. Mansfield and G. S. Kino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2615 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mantalas, L. C.

McCarthy, B.

T. Chen, T. D. Milster, S. K. Park, B. McCarthy, D. Sarid, C. Poweleit, and J. Menendez, Opt. Eng. 45, 103002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Menendez, J.

T. Chen, T. D. Milster, S. K. Park, B. McCarthy, D. Sarid, C. Poweleit, and J. Menendez, Opt. Eng. 45, 103002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Milster, T.

Milster, T. D.

T. Chen, T. D. Milster, S. K. Park, B. McCarthy, D. Sarid, C. Poweleit, and J. Menendez, Opt. Eng. 45, 103002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Milster, J. S. Jo, and K. Hirota, Appl. Opt. 38, 5046 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mirin, R.

Z. H. Liu, B. B. Goldberg, S. B. Ippolito, A. N. Vamivakas, M. S. Unlu, and R. Mirin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 071905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nakaoki, A.

T. Ishimoto, K. Saito, M. Shinoda, T. Kondo, A. Nakaoki, and M. Yamamoto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 42, 2719 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. K.

T. Chen, T. D. Milster, S. K. Park, B. McCarthy, D. Sarid, C. Poweleit, and J. Menendez, Opt. Eng. 45, 103002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Poweleit, C.

T. Chen, T. D. Milster, S. K. Park, B. McCarthy, D. Sarid, C. Poweleit, and J. Menendez, Opt. Eng. 45, 103002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Richards, B.

B. Richards and E. Wolf, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 253, 358 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Rosenbluthk, A. E.

Saito, K.

T. Ishimoto, K. Saito, M. Shinoda, T. Kondo, A. Nakaoki, and M. Yamamoto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 42, 2719 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sarid, D.

T. Chen, T. D. Milster, S. K. Park, B. McCarthy, D. Sarid, C. Poweleit, and J. Menendez, Opt. Eng. 45, 103002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shinoda, M.

T. Ishimoto, K. Saito, M. Shinoda, T. Kondo, A. Nakaoki, and M. Yamamoto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 42, 2719 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stelzer, E. H. K.

E. H. K. Stelzer, J. Microsc. 189, 15 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Unlu, M. S.

Z. H. Liu, B. B. Goldberg, S. B. Ippolito, A. N. Vamivakas, M. S. Unlu, and R. Mirin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 071905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vamivakas, A. N.

Z. H. Liu, B. B. Goldberg, S. B. Ippolito, A. N. Vamivakas, M. S. Unlu, and R. Mirin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 071905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

B. Richards and E. Wolf, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 253, 358 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, M.

T. Ishimoto, K. Saito, M. Shinoda, T. Kondo, A. Nakaoki, and M. Yamamoto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 42, 2719 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. M. Mansfield and G. S. Kino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2615 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Liu, B. B. Goldberg, S. B. Ippolito, A. N. Vamivakas, M. S. Unlu, and R. Mirin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 071905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

E. H. K. Stelzer, J. Microsc. 189, 15 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 (1)

T. Ishimoto, K. Saito, M. Shinoda, T. Kondo, A. Nakaoki, and M. Yamamoto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 42, 2719 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

T. Chen, T. D. Milster, S. K. Park, B. McCarthy, D. Sarid, C. Poweleit, and J. Menendez, Opt. Eng. 45, 103002 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A (1)

B. Richards and E. Wolf, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 253, 358 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

For example, the WYKO NT2000 Optical Profiler, produced by Veeco Metrology Group, Tucson, Arizona.

H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters (McGraw-Hill, 1989).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a SIL microscope that includes an induced polarization gap measurement system and an evanescent imaging system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulation and measurement data obtained using a 650 nm laser beam for the illumination light. Curves are gap-induced polarization signal S versus air gap height h for glass and Si flat substrates, with θ m = 53.13 ° . Insets are induced polarization signal distributions at the lens pupil for different gap heights and a glass substrate. White dashed circles on the pupil pictures indicate the boundary of total internal reflection critical angle, which shows that most of the induced energy is due to evanescent waves beyond the critical angle. Pupil distributions are not strongly affected by the substrate material. Instead, a slight uniform change in the power level is observed with different substrates at the same gap spacing. Native polarization is in the horizontal direction, and induced polarization is in the vertical direction.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Image data obtained using a filtered incoherent extended source for the illumination light. Pedestal is in contact with the highest features of the object. (a) Native polarization image of a patterned Si wafer, (b) induced polarization image of a patterned Si wafer. The inset shows a calculated depth profile of the boxed area from the calibration procedure.

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