Abstract

A semiconductor laser under negative optoelectronic feedback is applied to the generation of a microwave frequency comb through the nonlinear dynamics. The laser system is operated in a harmonic frequency-locked pulsing state, where its power spectrum is a microwave frequency comb that consists of multiples of a locking frequency. Every frequency component of the comb can be simultaneously stabilized by simply injecting an external microwave modulation at any component of the comb. This phenomenon can be viewed as a kind of microwave injection locking of the laser dynamics.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2006

2005

S. C. Chan and J. M. Liu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. C. Chan and J. M. Liu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1025 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

F. Y. Lin and J. M. Liu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 562 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

F. Y. Lin and J. M. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3128 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

S. Tang and J. M. Liu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 329 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997

1993

M. Jinno, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1140 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989

D. Baums, W. Elsässer, and E. O. Göbel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 155 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

H. G. Winful, Y. C. Chen, and J. M. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 616 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Baums, D.

D. Baums, W. Elsässer, and E. O. Göbel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 155 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, S. C.

S. C. Chan and J. M. Liu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Chan and J. M. Liu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1025 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. C.

H. G. Winful, Y. C. Chen, and J. M. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 616 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Elsässer, W.

D. Baums, W. Elsässer, and E. O. Göbel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 155 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Göbel, E. O.

D. Baums, W. Elsässer, and E. O. Göbel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 155 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izutsu, M.

Jinno, M.

M. Jinno, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1140 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kawanishi, T.

Lin, F. Y.

F. Y. Lin and J. M. Liu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 562 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Y. Lin and J. M. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3128 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. M.

S. C. Chan and J. M. Liu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Chan and J. M. Liu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1025 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Y. Lin and J. M. Liu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 562 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Y. Lin and J. M. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3128 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Tang and J. M. Liu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 329 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Winful, Y. C. Chen, and J. M. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 616 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Maleki, L.

Sakamoto, T.

Tang, S.

S. Tang and J. M. Liu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 329 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Winful, H. G.

H. G. Winful, Y. C. Chen, and J. M. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 616 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Yao, X. S.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. G. Winful, Y. C. Chen, and J. M. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 616 (1986).
[CrossRef]

F. Y. Lin and J. M. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3128 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

S. Tang and J. M. Liu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 329 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Y. Lin and J. M. Liu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 562 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Chan and J. M. Liu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

S. C. Chan and J. M. Liu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1025 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

M. Jinno, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1140 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

D. Baums, W. Elsässer, and E. O. Göbel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 155 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup. Dashed line: optical path. Solid line: microwave path.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Output in (i) the time domain, and (ii) the frequency domain. The loop frequency f 0 is kept constant at 65.6115 MHz , while the feedback strength ξ is varied. (a) When ξ = 0.22 , the laser undergoes regular pulsing. (b) When ξ = 0.23 , it enters 5:15 harmonic frequency locking.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Power spectra of the nth harmonic of f l with and without external microwave modulation. Broad linewidths are recorded as the black solid curves when there is no modulation. Linewidth narrowing is observed for all the frequency components when a modulation is applied at f l , f p ( = 3 f l ) , or 4 f l . The resulting spectra are shown, respectively, as the red dotted curves, the blue dashed curves, and the green solid curves. The measurements are limited by the 3 dB resolution bandwidth of 1 kHz .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Phase noise suppressions of the comb components at n f l under different external modulations.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of microwave frequency combs generated by frequency locking (black, dark curve, 12 dBm modulation at f l ) and gain switching (blue, light curve, 2 dBm modulation at f l ). Note the substantially higher modulation power required and worse noise performance for gain switching.

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