Abstract

We perform Monte Carlo simulations to show that the dual-axes (DA) confocal architecture has superior rejection of multiply scattered photons in tissue to that of single axis. As a result, the DA configuration provides improved signal-to-noise ratio and dynamic range, and thus is sensitive to ballistic photons from deeper within tissue, features that are particularly useful for performing vertical cross-sectional reflectance images in tissue.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. L. Dickensheets and G. S. Kino, Opt. Lett. 21, 764 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Nature 443, 765 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. H. Webb and F. Rogomentich, Appl. Opt. 38, 4870 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. D. Wang, M. J. Mandella, C. H. Contag, N. Y. Chan, and G. S. Kino, Opt. Lett. 28, 414 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. D. Wang, C. H. Contag, M. J. Mandella, N. Y. Chan, and G. S. Kino, Opt. Lett. 28, 1915 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, J. H. Crawford, C. H. Contag, G. S. Kino, and T. D. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054019 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Prahl, 'Mie scattering calculator,' http://omlc.ogi.edu/calc/mielowbarcalc.html.
  8. C. Bohren and D. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).
  9. L. Henyey and J. Greenstein, Astrophys. J. 93, 70 (1941).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. A. Prahl, M. Keijzer, S. L. Jacques, and A. J. Welch, Proc. SPIE 5, 102 (1989).
  11. R. Bays, G. Wagnieres, D. Robert, D. Braichotte, J.-F. Savary, P. Monnier, and H. van den Bergh, Appl. Opt. 35, 1756 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Nature 443, 765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, J. H. Crawford, C. H. Contag, G. S. Kino, and T. D. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054019 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

1999

1996

1989

S. A. Prahl, M. Keijzer, S. L. Jacques, and A. J. Welch, Proc. SPIE 5, 102 (1989).

1941

L. Henyey and J. Greenstein, Astrophys. J. 93, 70 (1941).
[CrossRef]

Bays, R.

Bohren, C.

C. Bohren and D. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Bouma, B. E.

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Nature 443, 765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braichotte, D.

Chan, N. Y.

Contag, C. H.

Crawford, J. H.

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, J. H. Crawford, C. H. Contag, G. S. Kino, and T. D. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054019 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dickensheets, D. L.

Friedland, S.

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, J. H. Crawford, C. H. Contag, G. S. Kino, and T. D. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054019 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greenstein, J.

L. Henyey and J. Greenstein, Astrophys. J. 93, 70 (1941).
[CrossRef]

Hasan, T.

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Nature 443, 765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henyey, L.

L. Henyey and J. Greenstein, Astrophys. J. 93, 70 (1941).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, D.

C. Bohren and D. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Jacques, S. L.

S. A. Prahl, M. Keijzer, S. L. Jacques, and A. J. Welch, Proc. SPIE 5, 102 (1989).

Keijzer, M.

S. A. Prahl, M. Keijzer, S. L. Jacques, and A. J. Welch, Proc. SPIE 5, 102 (1989).

Kino, G. S.

Liu, J. T. C.

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, J. H. Crawford, C. H. Contag, G. S. Kino, and T. D. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054019 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mandella, M. J.

Monnier, P.

Motz, J. T.

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Nature 443, 765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prahl, S.

S. Prahl, 'Mie scattering calculator,' http://omlc.ogi.edu/calc/mielowbarcalc.html.

Prahl, S. A.

S. A. Prahl, M. Keijzer, S. L. Jacques, and A. J. Welch, Proc. SPIE 5, 102 (1989).

Rizvi, I.

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Nature 443, 765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robert, D.

Rogomentich, F.

Savary, J.-F.

Soetikno, R.

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, J. H. Crawford, C. H. Contag, G. S. Kino, and T. D. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054019 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Nature 443, 765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van den Bergh, H.

Wagnieres, G.

Wang, T. D.

Webb, R. H.

Welch, A. J.

S. A. Prahl, M. Keijzer, S. L. Jacques, and A. J. Welch, Proc. SPIE 5, 102 (1989).

White, W. M.

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Nature 443, 765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yelin, D.

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Nature 443, 765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Astrophys. J.

L. Henyey and J. Greenstein, Astrophys. J. 93, 70 (1941).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

J. T. C. Liu, M. J. Mandella, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, J. H. Crawford, C. H. Contag, G. S. Kino, and T. D. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054019 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Nature 443, 765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

S. A. Prahl, M. Keijzer, S. L. Jacques, and A. J. Welch, Proc. SPIE 5, 102 (1989).

Other

S. Prahl, 'Mie scattering calculator,' http://omlc.ogi.edu/calc/mielowbarcalc.html.

C. Bohren and D. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic for (a) SA and (b) DA architectures used in the Monte Carlo simulations.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized photon flux distribution P * at the detector for (a) SA and (b) DA systems.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Axial response of normalized photon flux shows improved dynamic range for the DA over the SA configuration. (a) Pinhole diameters, D = 1 , 2, and 3 μ m for fixed optical length L = 6.4 ; (b) optical lengths L = 4.8 , 6.4, and 8.0 for fixed pinhole diameter of D = 3 μ m .

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

p ( θ ) = ( 1 g 2 ) [ 4 π ( 1 + g 2 2 g cos θ ) 3 2 ] ,
g = cos θ = 0 2 π 0 π cos θ p ( θ ) sin θ d θ d φ .

Metrics