Abstract

A focused ion beam is used to mill side holes in air–silica structured fibers. By way of example, side holes are introduced in two types of air-structured fiber, (1) a photonic crystal four-ring fiber and (2) a six-hole single-ring step-index structured fiber.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, and A. S. Bjarklev, Photonic Crystal Fibers (Kluwer Academic, 2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Canning, E. Buckley, K. Lyytikainen, Opt. Express 11, 347 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. Martelli and J. Canning, in Optical Fiber Sensors, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper ThF5.
  4. Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, and R. S. Windeler, Opt. Eng. 41, 8 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. I. Del Villar, I. R. Matias, F. J. Arregui, and R. Claus, Opt. Express 11, 430 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. Martelli, J. Canning, K. Lyytikainen, and N. Groothoff, Opt. Express 13, 3890 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. Lehmann, S. Bruckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, Proc. SPIE 5855, 419 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Lai, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Opt. Lett. 31, 2559 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. L. von Bibra, J. Canning, and A. Roberts, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 121 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. L. von Bibra, A. Roberts, and J. Canning, Opt. Lett. 26, 765 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Iannuzzi, S. Deladi, H. Schreuders, M. Slaman, J. H. Rector, and M. Elwenspoek, in Optical Fiber Sensors, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper TuB2.
  12. B. C. Gibson, S. T. Huntington, S. Rubanov, P. Olivero, K. Digweed-Lyytikäinen, J. Canning, and J. Love, Opt. Express 13, 9023 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. J. Moss, V. G. Ta'eed, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, S. Madden, M. Samoc, B. Luther-Davies, S. Janz, and D. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4860 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Canning, E. Buckley, S. Huntington, K. Lyytikäinen, Electrochim. Acta 49, 3581 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Canning, presented at 5th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks and the 2nd International Symposium on Advances and Trends in Fiber Optics and Applications (ICOCN/ATFO 2006), Chengdu, China 2006.
  16. C. Martelli, M. Sintic, J. Canning, M. J. Crossley, and D. Stocks are preparing a manuscript to be called 'Organic thin-films inside photonic crystal fibers.'
  17. M. Stevenson, C. Martelli, J. Canning, B. Ashton, and K. Lyytikäinen, Electron. Lett. 41, 1167 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. Sigmund, Phys. Rev. 184, 383 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. Santamore, K. Edinger, J. Orloff, and J. Melngailis, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2346 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2006

2005

C. Martelli, J. Canning, K. Lyytikainen, and N. Groothoff, Opt. Express 13, 3890 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Lehmann, S. Bruckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, Proc. SPIE 5855, 419 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Gibson, S. T. Huntington, S. Rubanov, P. Olivero, K. Digweed-Lyytikäinen, J. Canning, and J. Love, Opt. Express 13, 9023 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Stevenson, C. Martelli, J. Canning, B. Ashton, and K. Lyytikäinen, Electron. Lett. 41, 1167 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

D. J. Moss, V. G. Ta'eed, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, S. Madden, M. Samoc, B. Luther-Davies, S. Janz, and D. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4860 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Canning, E. Buckley, S. Huntington, K. Lyytikäinen, Electrochim. Acta 49, 3581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, and R. S. Windeler, Opt. Eng. 41, 8 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

1997

M. L. von Bibra, J. Canning, and A. Roberts, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 121 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Santamore, K. Edinger, J. Orloff, and J. Melngailis, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2346 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1969

P. Sigmund, Phys. Rev. 184, 383 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Arregui, F. J.

Ashton, B.

M. Stevenson, C. Martelli, J. Canning, B. Ashton, and K. Lyytikäinen, Electron. Lett. 41, 1167 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

Bjarklev, A.

A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, and A. S. Bjarklev, Photonic Crystal Fibers (Kluwer Academic, 2003).
[CrossRef]

Bjarklev, A. S.

A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, and A. S. Bjarklev, Photonic Crystal Fibers (Kluwer Academic, 2003).
[CrossRef]

Broeng, J.

A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, and A. S. Bjarklev, Photonic Crystal Fibers (Kluwer Academic, 2003).
[CrossRef]

Bruckner, S.

H. Lehmann, S. Bruckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, Proc. SPIE 5855, 419 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Buckley, E.

J. Canning, E. Buckley, S. Huntington, K. Lyytikäinen, Electrochim. Acta 49, 3581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Canning, E. Buckley, K. Lyytikainen, Opt. Express 11, 347 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Canning, J.

C. Martelli, J. Canning, K. Lyytikainen, and N. Groothoff, Opt. Express 13, 3890 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Stevenson, C. Martelli, J. Canning, B. Ashton, and K. Lyytikäinen, Electron. Lett. 41, 1167 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Gibson, S. T. Huntington, S. Rubanov, P. Olivero, K. Digweed-Lyytikäinen, J. Canning, and J. Love, Opt. Express 13, 9023 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Canning, E. Buckley, S. Huntington, K. Lyytikäinen, Electrochim. Acta 49, 3581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Canning, E. Buckley, K. Lyytikainen, Opt. Express 11, 347 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. von Bibra, A. Roberts, and J. Canning, Opt. Lett. 26, 765 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. L. von Bibra, J. Canning, and A. Roberts, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 121 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Martelli and J. Canning, in Optical Fiber Sensors, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper ThF5.

C. Martelli, M. Sintic, J. Canning, M. J. Crossley, and D. Stocks are preparing a manuscript to be called 'Organic thin-films inside photonic crystal fibers.'

J. Canning, presented at 5th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks and the 2nd International Symposium on Advances and Trends in Fiber Optics and Applications (ICOCN/ATFO 2006), Chengdu, China 2006.

Claus, R.

Crossley, M. J.

C. Martelli, M. Sintic, J. Canning, M. J. Crossley, and D. Stocks are preparing a manuscript to be called 'Organic thin-films inside photonic crystal fibers.'

Del Villar, I.

Deladi, S.

D. Iannuzzi, S. Deladi, H. Schreuders, M. Slaman, J. H. Rector, and M. Elwenspoek, in Optical Fiber Sensors, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper TuB2.

Digweed-Lyytikäinen, K.

Edinger, K.

D. Santamore, K. Edinger, J. Orloff, and J. Melngailis, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2346 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

D. J. Moss, V. G. Ta'eed, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, S. Madden, M. Samoc, B. Luther-Davies, S. Janz, and D. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4860 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Elwenspoek, M.

D. Iannuzzi, S. Deladi, H. Schreuders, M. Slaman, J. H. Rector, and M. Elwenspoek, in Optical Fiber Sensors, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper TuB2.

Freeman, D.

D. J. Moss, V. G. Ta'eed, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, S. Madden, M. Samoc, B. Luther-Davies, S. Janz, and D. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4860 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, B. C.

Groothoff, N.

Ho, H. L.

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, and R. S. Windeler, Opt. Eng. 41, 8 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hoo, Y. L.

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, and R. S. Windeler, Opt. Eng. 41, 8 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huntington, S.

J. Canning, E. Buckley, S. Huntington, K. Lyytikäinen, Electrochim. Acta 49, 3581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huntington, S. T.

Iannuzzi, D.

D. Iannuzzi, S. Deladi, H. Schreuders, M. Slaman, J. H. Rector, and M. Elwenspoek, in Optical Fiber Sensors, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper TuB2.

Janz, S.

D. J. Moss, V. G. Ta'eed, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, S. Madden, M. Samoc, B. Luther-Davies, S. Janz, and D. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4860 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jin, W.

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, and R. S. Windeler, Opt. Eng. 41, 8 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kobelke, J.

H. Lehmann, S. Bruckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, Proc. SPIE 5855, 419 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lai, Y.

Lehmann, H.

H. Lehmann, S. Bruckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, Proc. SPIE 5855, 419 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Love, J.

Luther-Davies, B.

D. J. Moss, V. G. Ta'eed, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, S. Madden, M. Samoc, B. Luther-Davies, S. Janz, and D. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4860 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lyytikainen, K.

Lyytikäinen, K.

M. Stevenson, C. Martelli, J. Canning, B. Ashton, and K. Lyytikäinen, Electron. Lett. 41, 1167 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Canning, E. Buckley, S. Huntington, K. Lyytikäinen, Electrochim. Acta 49, 3581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Madden, S.

D. J. Moss, V. G. Ta'eed, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, S. Madden, M. Samoc, B. Luther-Davies, S. Janz, and D. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4860 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Martelli, C.

M. Stevenson, C. Martelli, J. Canning, B. Ashton, and K. Lyytikäinen, Electron. Lett. 41, 1167 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Martelli, J. Canning, K. Lyytikainen, and N. Groothoff, Opt. Express 13, 3890 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Martelli and J. Canning, in Optical Fiber Sensors, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper ThF5.

C. Martelli, M. Sintic, J. Canning, M. J. Crossley, and D. Stocks are preparing a manuscript to be called 'Organic thin-films inside photonic crystal fibers.'

Matias, I. R.

Melngailis, J.

D. Santamore, K. Edinger, J. Orloff, and J. Melngailis, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2346 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moss, D. J.

D. J. Moss, V. G. Ta'eed, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, S. Madden, M. Samoc, B. Luther-Davies, S. Janz, and D. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4860 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Olivero, P.

Orloff, J.

D. Santamore, K. Edinger, J. Orloff, and J. Melngailis, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2346 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rector, J. H.

D. Iannuzzi, S. Deladi, H. Schreuders, M. Slaman, J. H. Rector, and M. Elwenspoek, in Optical Fiber Sensors, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper TuB2.

Roberts, A.

M. L. von Bibra, A. Roberts, and J. Canning, Opt. Lett. 26, 765 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. L. von Bibra, J. Canning, and A. Roberts, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 121 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rubanov, S.

Samoc, M.

D. J. Moss, V. G. Ta'eed, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, S. Madden, M. Samoc, B. Luther-Davies, S. Janz, and D. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4860 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Santamore, D.

D. Santamore, K. Edinger, J. Orloff, and J. Melngailis, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2346 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schreuders, H.

D. Iannuzzi, S. Deladi, H. Schreuders, M. Slaman, J. H. Rector, and M. Elwenspoek, in Optical Fiber Sensors, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper TuB2.

Schuster, K.

H. Lehmann, S. Bruckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, Proc. SPIE 5855, 419 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schwotzer, G.

H. Lehmann, S. Bruckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, Proc. SPIE 5855, 419 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sigmund, P.

P. Sigmund, Phys. Rev. 184, 383 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Sintic, M.

C. Martelli, M. Sintic, J. Canning, M. J. Crossley, and D. Stocks are preparing a manuscript to be called 'Organic thin-films inside photonic crystal fibers.'

Slaman, M.

D. Iannuzzi, S. Deladi, H. Schreuders, M. Slaman, J. H. Rector, and M. Elwenspoek, in Optical Fiber Sensors, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper TuB2.

Stevenson, M.

M. Stevenson, C. Martelli, J. Canning, B. Ashton, and K. Lyytikäinen, Electron. Lett. 41, 1167 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stocks, D.

C. Martelli, M. Sintic, J. Canning, M. J. Crossley, and D. Stocks are preparing a manuscript to be called 'Organic thin-films inside photonic crystal fibers.'

Ta'eed, V. G.

D. J. Moss, V. G. Ta'eed, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, S. Madden, M. Samoc, B. Luther-Davies, S. Janz, and D. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4860 (2004).
[CrossRef]

von Bibra, M. L.

M. L. von Bibra, A. Roberts, and J. Canning, Opt. Lett. 26, 765 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. L. von Bibra, J. Canning, and A. Roberts, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 121 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D. N.

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, and R. S. Windeler, Opt. Eng. 41, 8 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Willsch, R.

H. Lehmann, S. Bruckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, Proc. SPIE 5855, 419 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, and R. S. Windeler, Opt. Eng. 41, 8 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D.

D. J. Moss, V. G. Ta'eed, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, S. Madden, M. Samoc, B. Luther-Davies, S. Janz, and D. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4860 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

Zhou, K.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. J. Moss, V. G. Ta'eed, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, S. Madden, M. Samoc, B. Luther-Davies, S. Janz, and D. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4860 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electrochim. Acta

J. Canning, E. Buckley, S. Huntington, K. Lyytikäinen, Electrochim. Acta 49, 3581 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

M. Stevenson, C. Martelli, J. Canning, B. Ashton, and K. Lyytikäinen, Electron. Lett. 41, 1167 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

M. L. von Bibra, J. Canning, and A. Roberts, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 121 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

D. Santamore, K. Edinger, J. Orloff, and J. Melngailis, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2346 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, and R. S. Windeler, Opt. Eng. 41, 8 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev.

P. Sigmund, Phys. Rev. 184, 383 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

H. Lehmann, S. Bruckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, Proc. SPIE 5855, 419 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, and A. S. Bjarklev, Photonic Crystal Fibers (Kluwer Academic, 2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Martelli and J. Canning, in Optical Fiber Sensors, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper ThF5.

D. Iannuzzi, S. Deladi, H. Schreuders, M. Slaman, J. H. Rector, and M. Elwenspoek, in Optical Fiber Sensors, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper TuB2.

J. Canning, presented at 5th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks and the 2nd International Symposium on Advances and Trends in Fiber Optics and Applications (ICOCN/ATFO 2006), Chengdu, China 2006.

C. Martelli, M. Sintic, J. Canning, M. J. Crossley, and D. Stocks are preparing a manuscript to be called 'Organic thin-films inside photonic crystal fibers.'

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Fiber 1, Photonic crystal fiber, and (b) fiber 2, six-hole step-index fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical microscope side-view images of milled holes within the photonic crystal fiber samples (depths 10 ± 2 , 30 ± 6 , 56 ± 6 , and 70 ± 6 μ m from left to right).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Filled triangles, measured hole depths for FIB conditions ( Ga + ions, 20 nA ). The solid (experimental best fit) and dashed lines [19] correspond to the amount of sputtered molecules as function of number of ions for PCF fiber and solid silica, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SEM images of milled holes in (a) fiber 1, four-ring photonic crystal fiber ( ϕ diameter 12 μ m , depth 68 μ m ), and (b) fiber (2), in six-hole step-index fiber ( ϕ diameter 15 μ m , depth 7 μ m ). The channel cavity can be seen below.

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