Abstract

We demonstrate a technique to reduce first-order Doppler shifts in crossed atomic/molecular and laser beam setups by aligning two counterpropagating laser beams as part of a Sagnac interferometer. Interference fringes on the exit port of the interferometer reveal minute deviations from perfect antiparallelism. Residual Doppler shifts of this method scale with the ratio v(4d) of the typical atomic/molecular velocity v and the laser beam diameter d. The method is implemented for precision frequency calibration studies at deep-UV wavelengths, both in one- and two-photon excitation schemes: the 6s26s30p32 J=1 line in Yb at 199nm and the 4p64p5p[12]0 transition in Kr at λ=212nm. The achieved precision of 6×1010 is limited by the characteristics of the laser system.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. Demtröder, Laser Spectroscopy, 3rd ed. (Springer, 2002).
  2. R. L. Barger and J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 4 (1969).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Sagnac, Compt. Rend. 157, 1410 (1913).
  6. E. J. Post, Rev. Mod. Phys. 39, 475 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Sneep, S. Hannemann, E. van Duijn, and W. Ubachs, Opt. Lett. 29, 1378 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Hannemann, E. Salumbides, S. Witte, R. T. Zinkstok, K. S. E. Eikema, and W. Ubachs, Phys. Rev. A 74, 012505 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Hannemann, E. Salumbides, S. Witte, R. T. Zinkstok, K. S. E. Eikema, and W. Ubachs, Phys. Rev. A 74, 062514 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Witte, R. Zinkstok, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. Eikema, Science 307, 400 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. F. Brandi, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, J. Phys. B 35, 1071 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. T. Zinkstok, S. Witte, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, Phys. Rev. A 73, 061801(R) (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (3)

S. Hannemann, E. Salumbides, S. Witte, R. T. Zinkstok, K. S. E. Eikema, and W. Ubachs, Phys. Rev. A 74, 012505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Hannemann, E. Salumbides, S. Witte, R. T. Zinkstok, K. S. E. Eikema, and W. Ubachs, Phys. Rev. A 74, 062514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Zinkstok, S. Witte, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, Phys. Rev. A 73, 061801(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

S. Witte, R. Zinkstok, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. Eikema, Science 307, 400 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

F. Brandi, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, J. Phys. B 35, 1071 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

C. Wieman and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 1170 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

B. Cagnac, G. Grynberg, and F. Biraben, J. Phys. (France) 34, 845 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

R. L. Barger and J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 4 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

E. J. Post, Rev. Mod. Phys. 39, 475 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1913 (1)

G. Sagnac, Compt. Rend. 157, 1410 (1913).

Barger, R. L.

R. L. Barger and J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 4 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Biraben, F.

B. Cagnac, G. Grynberg, and F. Biraben, J. Phys. (France) 34, 845 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Brandi, F.

F. Brandi, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, J. Phys. B 35, 1071 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cagnac, B.

B. Cagnac, G. Grynberg, and F. Biraben, J. Phys. (France) 34, 845 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Demtröder, W.

W. Demtröder, Laser Spectroscopy, 3rd ed. (Springer, 2002).

Eikema, K.

S. Witte, R. Zinkstok, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. Eikema, Science 307, 400 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eikema, K. S. E.

R. T. Zinkstok, S. Witte, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, Phys. Rev. A 73, 061801(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Hannemann, E. Salumbides, S. Witte, R. T. Zinkstok, K. S. E. Eikema, and W. Ubachs, Phys. Rev. A 74, 012505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Hannemann, E. Salumbides, S. Witte, R. T. Zinkstok, K. S. E. Eikema, and W. Ubachs, Phys. Rev. A 74, 062514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grynberg, G.

B. Cagnac, G. Grynberg, and F. Biraben, J. Phys. (France) 34, 845 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

R. L. Barger and J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 4 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Hannemann, S.

S. Hannemann, E. Salumbides, S. Witte, R. T. Zinkstok, K. S. E. Eikema, and W. Ubachs, Phys. Rev. A 74, 012505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Hannemann, E. Salumbides, S. Witte, R. T. Zinkstok, K. S. E. Eikema, and W. Ubachs, Phys. Rev. A 74, 062514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Sneep, S. Hannemann, E. van Duijn, and W. Ubachs, Opt. Lett. 29, 1378 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

C. Wieman and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 1170 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Hogervorst, W.

R. T. Zinkstok, S. Witte, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, Phys. Rev. A 73, 061801(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Witte, R. Zinkstok, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. Eikema, Science 307, 400 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Brandi, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, J. Phys. B 35, 1071 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Post, E. J.

E. J. Post, Rev. Mod. Phys. 39, 475 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Sagnac, G.

G. Sagnac, Compt. Rend. 157, 1410 (1913).

Salumbides, E.

S. Hannemann, E. Salumbides, S. Witte, R. T. Zinkstok, K. S. E. Eikema, and W. Ubachs, Phys. Rev. A 74, 062514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Hannemann, E. Salumbides, S. Witte, R. T. Zinkstok, K. S. E. Eikema, and W. Ubachs, Phys. Rev. A 74, 012505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sneep, M.

Ubachs, W.

S. Hannemann, E. Salumbides, S. Witte, R. T. Zinkstok, K. S. E. Eikema, and W. Ubachs, Phys. Rev. A 74, 062514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Hannemann, E. Salumbides, S. Witte, R. T. Zinkstok, K. S. E. Eikema, and W. Ubachs, Phys. Rev. A 74, 012505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Zinkstok, S. Witte, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, Phys. Rev. A 73, 061801(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Witte, R. Zinkstok, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. Eikema, Science 307, 400 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sneep, S. Hannemann, E. van Duijn, and W. Ubachs, Opt. Lett. 29, 1378 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Brandi, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, J. Phys. B 35, 1071 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van Duijn, E.

Wieman, C.

C. Wieman and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 1170 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Witte, S.

R. T. Zinkstok, S. Witte, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, Phys. Rev. A 73, 061801(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Hannemann, E. Salumbides, S. Witte, R. T. Zinkstok, K. S. E. Eikema, and W. Ubachs, Phys. Rev. A 74, 012505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Hannemann, E. Salumbides, S. Witte, R. T. Zinkstok, K. S. E. Eikema, and W. Ubachs, Phys. Rev. A 74, 062514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Witte, R. Zinkstok, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. Eikema, Science 307, 400 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zinkstok, R.

S. Witte, R. Zinkstok, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. Eikema, Science 307, 400 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zinkstok, R. T.

S. Hannemann, E. Salumbides, S. Witte, R. T. Zinkstok, K. S. E. Eikema, and W. Ubachs, Phys. Rev. A 74, 062514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Hannemann, E. Salumbides, S. Witte, R. T. Zinkstok, K. S. E. Eikema, and W. Ubachs, Phys. Rev. A 74, 012505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Zinkstok, S. Witte, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, Phys. Rev. A 73, 061801(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Compt. Rend. (1)

G. Sagnac, Compt. Rend. 157, 1410 (1913).

J. Phys. (France) (1)

B. Cagnac, G. Grynberg, and F. Biraben, J. Phys. (France) 34, 845 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B (1)

F. Brandi, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, J. Phys. B 35, 1071 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (3)

R. T. Zinkstok, S. Witte, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, Phys. Rev. A 73, 061801(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Hannemann, E. Salumbides, S. Witte, R. T. Zinkstok, K. S. E. Eikema, and W. Ubachs, Phys. Rev. A 74, 012505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Hannemann, E. Salumbides, S. Witte, R. T. Zinkstok, K. S. E. Eikema, and W. Ubachs, Phys. Rev. A 74, 062514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

R. L. Barger and J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 4 (1969).
[CrossRef]

C. Wieman and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 1170 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

E. J. Post, Rev. Mod. Phys. 39, 475 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

S. Witte, R. Zinkstok, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. Eikema, Science 307, 400 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

W. Demtröder, Laser Spectroscopy, 3rd ed. (Springer, 2002).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Generic atomic/molecular beam setup combined with a Sagnac interferometer. A skimmed beam crosses two counterpropagating laser beams in the interaction zone. The incident light coming from port (a) follows the solid line in either direction when the ring is perfectly aligned. If one mirror is tilted by δ 2 , here the beam splitter (BS), the clockwise and counterclockwise beams generate a fringe pattern as depicted at port (b).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Frequency comb calibration of the 4 p 6 4 p 5 p [ 1 2 ] 0 two-photon transition in Kr 84 and the 6 s 2 6 s 30 p 3 2 J = 1 transition in the main Yb isotope. (b) Overview of the 6 s 2 6 s 30 p 3 2 J = 1 transition in Yb: a precalibration was performed using the b-component (marked with an asterisk) of the P(200) line of the B X (0–14) band in I 2 at 12569.68739 cm 1 . Frequency comb calibrations are performed for Yb isotopic lines marked with an asterisk.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Results of the Absolute Calibrations

Tables Icon

Table 2 Error Budgets for Each Species (in MHz)

Equations (2)

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2 δ = θ sin θ = λ p < λ d
Δ f = v λ sin δ 2 < v 4 d .

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