Abstract

A method for measuring resonances using a combination of third-harmonic generation and frequency-domain interferometry is described and demonstrated in an index-matched dielectric material. The phase of the third-harmonic spectrum of a pulse generated from a resonant NdAlO3 thin film and a temporally displaced sapphire substrate pulse was measured by analyzing the spectral interference pattern. The appropriate combination of substrate and film signals was obtained by translating the sample through the laser focus while observing the third-harmonic intensity.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. Barad, H. Eisenberg, M. Horowitz, and Y. Silberberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 922 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Cheng and S. Xie, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1604 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Barille, L. Canioni, L. Sarger, and G. Rivoire, Phys. Rev. E 66, 067602 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Ferrante, M. Zarcone, and S. A. Uryupin, Phys. Rev. E 70, 016403 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Sun, P. Figliozzi, Y. Q. An, M. C. Downer, W. L. Mochan, and B. S. Mendoza, Opt. Lett. 30, 2005 (2005).
  6. T. Y. F. Tsang, Phys. Rev. A 52, 4116 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. Tsang, M. A. Krumbügel, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fitinghoff, and R. Trebino, Opt. Lett. 52, 1381 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. S. Stoker, J. Baek, W. Wang, D. Kovar, M. F. Becker, and J. W. Keto, Phys. Rev. A 73, 053812 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Banfi, G. Ferrini, D. Finarelli, M. Peloi, and F. Parmigiani, Phys. Rev. A 64, 063812 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Stoker, M. F. Becker, and J. W. Keto, Phys. Rev. A 71, 061802(R) (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. Tokunaga, A. Terasaki, and T. Kobayashi, Opt. Lett. 17, 1131 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. P. T. Wilson, Y. Jiang, O. A. Aktsipetrov, E. Mishina, and M. C. Downer, Opt. Lett. 24, 496 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

D. S. Stoker, J. Baek, W. Wang, D. Kovar, M. F. Becker, and J. W. Keto, Phys. Rev. A 73, 053812 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

L. Sun, P. Figliozzi, Y. Q. An, M. C. Downer, W. L. Mochan, and B. S. Mendoza, Opt. Lett. 30, 2005 (2005).

D. Stoker, M. F. Becker, and J. W. Keto, Phys. Rev. A 71, 061802(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

G. Ferrante, M. Zarcone, and S. A. Uryupin, Phys. Rev. E 70, 016403 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

J. Cheng and S. Xie, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1604 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Barille, L. Canioni, L. Sarger, and G. Rivoire, Phys. Rev. E 66, 067602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

G. Banfi, G. Ferrini, D. Finarelli, M. Peloi, and F. Parmigiani, Phys. Rev. A 64, 063812 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

Y. Barad, H. Eisenberg, M. Horowitz, and Y. Silberberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 922 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

T. Tsang, M. A. Krumbügel, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fitinghoff, and R. Trebino, Opt. Lett. 52, 1381 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

T. Y. F. Tsang, Phys. Rev. A 52, 4116 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

Aktsipetrov, O. A.

An, Y. Q.

L. Sun, P. Figliozzi, Y. Q. An, M. C. Downer, W. L. Mochan, and B. S. Mendoza, Opt. Lett. 30, 2005 (2005).

Baek, J.

D. S. Stoker, J. Baek, W. Wang, D. Kovar, M. F. Becker, and J. W. Keto, Phys. Rev. A 73, 053812 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Banfi, G.

G. Banfi, G. Ferrini, D. Finarelli, M. Peloi, and F. Parmigiani, Phys. Rev. A 64, 063812 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barad, Y.

Y. Barad, H. Eisenberg, M. Horowitz, and Y. Silberberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 922 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Barille, R.

R. Barille, L. Canioni, L. Sarger, and G. Rivoire, Phys. Rev. E 66, 067602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Becker, M. F.

D. S. Stoker, J. Baek, W. Wang, D. Kovar, M. F. Becker, and J. W. Keto, Phys. Rev. A 73, 053812 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Stoker, M. F. Becker, and J. W. Keto, Phys. Rev. A 71, 061802(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Canioni, L.

R. Barille, L. Canioni, L. Sarger, and G. Rivoire, Phys. Rev. E 66, 067602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, J.

DeLong, K. W.

T. Tsang, M. A. Krumbügel, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fitinghoff, and R. Trebino, Opt. Lett. 52, 1381 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Downer, M. C.

L. Sun, P. Figliozzi, Y. Q. An, M. C. Downer, W. L. Mochan, and B. S. Mendoza, Opt. Lett. 30, 2005 (2005).

P. T. Wilson, Y. Jiang, O. A. Aktsipetrov, E. Mishina, and M. C. Downer, Opt. Lett. 24, 496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eisenberg, H.

Y. Barad, H. Eisenberg, M. Horowitz, and Y. Silberberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 922 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ferrante, G.

G. Ferrante, M. Zarcone, and S. A. Uryupin, Phys. Rev. E 70, 016403 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ferrini, G.

G. Banfi, G. Ferrini, D. Finarelli, M. Peloi, and F. Parmigiani, Phys. Rev. A 64, 063812 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Figliozzi, P.

L. Sun, P. Figliozzi, Y. Q. An, M. C. Downer, W. L. Mochan, and B. S. Mendoza, Opt. Lett. 30, 2005 (2005).

Finarelli, D.

G. Banfi, G. Ferrini, D. Finarelli, M. Peloi, and F. Parmigiani, Phys. Rev. A 64, 063812 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fitinghoff, D. N.

T. Tsang, M. A. Krumbügel, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fitinghoff, and R. Trebino, Opt. Lett. 52, 1381 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Horowitz, M.

Y. Barad, H. Eisenberg, M. Horowitz, and Y. Silberberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 922 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

Keto, J. W.

D. S. Stoker, J. Baek, W. Wang, D. Kovar, M. F. Becker, and J. W. Keto, Phys. Rev. A 73, 053812 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Stoker, M. F. Becker, and J. W. Keto, Phys. Rev. A 71, 061802(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

Kovar, D.

D. S. Stoker, J. Baek, W. Wang, D. Kovar, M. F. Becker, and J. W. Keto, Phys. Rev. A 73, 053812 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krumbügel, M. A.

T. Tsang, M. A. Krumbügel, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fitinghoff, and R. Trebino, Opt. Lett. 52, 1381 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mendoza, B. S.

L. Sun, P. Figliozzi, Y. Q. An, M. C. Downer, W. L. Mochan, and B. S. Mendoza, Opt. Lett. 30, 2005 (2005).

Mishina, E.

Mochan, W. L.

L. Sun, P. Figliozzi, Y. Q. An, M. C. Downer, W. L. Mochan, and B. S. Mendoza, Opt. Lett. 30, 2005 (2005).

Parmigiani, F.

G. Banfi, G. Ferrini, D. Finarelli, M. Peloi, and F. Parmigiani, Phys. Rev. A 64, 063812 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Peloi, M.

G. Banfi, G. Ferrini, D. Finarelli, M. Peloi, and F. Parmigiani, Phys. Rev. A 64, 063812 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rivoire, G.

R. Barille, L. Canioni, L. Sarger, and G. Rivoire, Phys. Rev. E 66, 067602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sarger, L.

R. Barille, L. Canioni, L. Sarger, and G. Rivoire, Phys. Rev. E 66, 067602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Silberberg, Y.

Y. Barad, H. Eisenberg, M. Horowitz, and Y. Silberberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 922 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stoker, D.

D. Stoker, M. F. Becker, and J. W. Keto, Phys. Rev. A 71, 061802(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stoker, D. S.

D. S. Stoker, J. Baek, W. Wang, D. Kovar, M. F. Becker, and J. W. Keto, Phys. Rev. A 73, 053812 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sun, L.

L. Sun, P. Figliozzi, Y. Q. An, M. C. Downer, W. L. Mochan, and B. S. Mendoza, Opt. Lett. 30, 2005 (2005).

Terasaki, A.

Tokunaga, E.

Trebino, R.

T. Tsang, M. A. Krumbügel, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fitinghoff, and R. Trebino, Opt. Lett. 52, 1381 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, T.

T. Tsang, M. A. Krumbügel, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fitinghoff, and R. Trebino, Opt. Lett. 52, 1381 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, T. Y. F.

T. Y. F. Tsang, Phys. Rev. A 52, 4116 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uryupin, S. A.

G. Ferrante, M. Zarcone, and S. A. Uryupin, Phys. Rev. E 70, 016403 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

D. S. Stoker, J. Baek, W. Wang, D. Kovar, M. F. Becker, and J. W. Keto, Phys. Rev. A 73, 053812 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, P. T.

Xie, S.

Zarcone, M.

G. Ferrante, M. Zarcone, and S. A. Uryupin, Phys. Rev. E 70, 016403 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Barad, H. Eisenberg, M. Horowitz, and Y. Silberberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 922 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

E. Tokunaga, A. Terasaki, and T. Kobayashi, Opt. Lett. 17, 1131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. T. Wilson, Y. Jiang, O. A. Aktsipetrov, E. Mishina, and M. C. Downer, Opt. Lett. 24, 496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Sun, P. Figliozzi, Y. Q. An, M. C. Downer, W. L. Mochan, and B. S. Mendoza, Opt. Lett. 30, 2005 (2005).

T. Tsang, M. A. Krumbügel, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fitinghoff, and R. Trebino, Opt. Lett. 52, 1381 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (4)

D. S. Stoker, J. Baek, W. Wang, D. Kovar, M. F. Becker, and J. W. Keto, Phys. Rev. A 73, 053812 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Banfi, G. Ferrini, D. Finarelli, M. Peloi, and F. Parmigiani, Phys. Rev. A 64, 063812 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Stoker, M. F. Becker, and J. W. Keto, Phys. Rev. A 71, 061802(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. F. Tsang, Phys. Rev. A 52, 4116 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E (2)

R. Barille, L. Canioni, L. Sarger, and G. Rivoire, Phys. Rev. E 66, 067602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Ferrante, M. Zarcone, and S. A. Uryupin, Phys. Rev. E 70, 016403 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Time-domain picture of TH FDI from a thin-film sample. A near-infrared pulse is focused to a spot in a transparent sample with thickness L the optical depth of field. At the entrance interface, a TH pulse is generated, which is delayed from the fundamental field by group-velocity mismatching in the substrate. A resonant interaction at the thin-film interface ( δ L L ) produces a second TH pulse that is time delayed and phase shifted. The pair of TH pulses are then filtered and passed to a spectrograph to measure the FDI signal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Linear transmission spectrum of the reference sapphire (0001) substrate (upper curve) compared with the transmission spectrum of the thin NdAlO 3 film sample (lower curve). The coated sample exhibits the atomic Nd 3 + resonances, though it displays no thin film interference due to the near index matching of the film and substrate. The atomic line at 808 nm is resonant with the fundamental field of the laser shown with a Gaussian fit (bottom right).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Total THG as a function of sample position of the sample and bare substrate were recorded by integrating the TH spectrum at each focal point. The solid curve corresponds to the NdAlO 3 -coated substrate. The dashed curve corresponds to the bare substrate. The vertical arrow indicates the focal position P * = 600 μ m where the TH spectrum of each were compared. Between 0 and 200 μ m some fluctuations in measured intensity were observed due to nonparaxial effects.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Fitted third-harmonic spectrum measured with midpoint focus in the coated sample (top curve) and bare sapphire (bottom curve). The fits (solid curves) to the experimental data (circles) were used to extract the phase shift of 1.49 rad .

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters from THG Spectral Fit

Equations (3)

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E ̃ ( ω , t ) = E ̃ 1 ( ω , t + Δ β t ) + E ̃ 2 ( ω , t )
E ̃ i ( ω , t ) exp [ Γ ( t Δ β z ) 2 ] exp [ i ( ω t θ i ) ] ,
E ̃ i ( λ ) 2 = A 0 2 exp 2 2 c 2 π 2 6 Γ ( 1 λ 1 λ 0 ) 2 cos 2 [ ( π c τ λ ) θ i ] .

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