Abstract

We demonstrate very high-contrast coherent population trapping[1] (CPT) resonances by using four-wave mixing in Rb87 atoms. In the experiment, we take advantage of the spectral overlap between F=2F and F=3F optical resonances on the D1 line of Rb87 and Rb85 atoms, respectively, to eliminate the DC-light background from the CPT resonance signal. We observe a CPT resonance with a contrast in the range of 90%, compared with a few percent achieved by alternative methods.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Alzetta, A. Gozzini, L. Moi, and G. Orriols, Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis., B 36, 5 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Vanier, A. Godone, and F. Levi, Phys. Rev. A 58, 2345 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Zhu, in 2003 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2003), p. 16.
  5. J. G. Coffer, M. Anderson, and J. C. Camparo, Phys. Rev. A 65, 033807 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. R. Hemmer, D. P. Katz, J. Donoghue, M. Cronin-Golomb, M. S. Shahriar, and P. Kumar, Opt. Lett. 20, 982 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. D. Lukin, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, H. G. Robinson, V. L. Velichansky, L. Hollberg, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2959 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. Vukicevic, A. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, F. Walls, J. Kitching, and H. Robinson, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47, 1122 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. S. Zibrov, H. G. Robinson, V. L. Velichansky, V. V. Vasiliev, L. Hollberg, E. Arimando, M. D. Lukin, and M. O. Scully, in 5th Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology, J.C.Bergquist, ed. (World Scientific, 1996), pp. 490-492.
  10. G. Alzetta, S. Gozzini, A. Lucchesini, S. Cartaleva, T. Karaulanov, C. Marinelli, and L. Moi, Phys. Rev. A 69, 063815 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. N. Cyr, M. Tetu, and M. Breton, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 42, 640 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. Lu, W. H. Burkett, and M. Xiao, Opt. Lett. 23, 804 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. D. Eisaman, L. Childress, A. André, F. Massou, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 233602 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. Vanier, M. W. Levine, D. Janssen, and M. Delaney, Phys. Rev. A 67, 1065801 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2004

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Alzetta, S. Gozzini, A. Lucchesini, S. Cartaleva, T. Karaulanov, C. Marinelli, and L. Moi, Phys. Rev. A 69, 063815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Eisaman, L. Childress, A. André, F. Massou, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 233602 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

J. Vanier, M. W. Levine, D. Janssen, and M. Delaney, Phys. Rev. A 67, 1065801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

J. G. Coffer, M. Anderson, and J. C. Camparo, Phys. Rev. A 65, 033807 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

N. Vukicevic, A. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, F. Walls, J. Kitching, and H. Robinson, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47, 1122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

B. Lu, W. H. Burkett, and M. Xiao, Opt. Lett. 23, 804 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Vanier, A. Godone, and F. Levi, Phys. Rev. A 58, 2345 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

M. D. Lukin, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, H. G. Robinson, V. L. Velichansky, L. Hollberg, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2959 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

1993

N. Cyr, M. Tetu, and M. Breton, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 42, 640 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1976

G. Alzetta, A. Gozzini, L. Moi, and G. Orriols, Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis., B 36, 5 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Alzetta, G.

G. Alzetta, S. Gozzini, A. Lucchesini, S. Cartaleva, T. Karaulanov, C. Marinelli, and L. Moi, Phys. Rev. A 69, 063815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Alzetta, A. Gozzini, L. Moi, and G. Orriols, Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis., B 36, 5 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, M.

J. G. Coffer, M. Anderson, and J. C. Camparo, Phys. Rev. A 65, 033807 (2002).
[CrossRef]

André, A.

M. D. Eisaman, L. Childress, A. André, F. Massou, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 233602 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arimando, E.

A. S. Zibrov, H. G. Robinson, V. L. Velichansky, V. V. Vasiliev, L. Hollberg, E. Arimando, M. D. Lukin, and M. O. Scully, in 5th Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology, J.C.Bergquist, ed. (World Scientific, 1996), pp. 490-492.

Breton, M.

N. Cyr, M. Tetu, and M. Breton, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 42, 640 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Burkett, W. H.

Camparo, J. C.

J. G. Coffer, M. Anderson, and J. C. Camparo, Phys. Rev. A 65, 033807 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cartaleva, S.

G. Alzetta, S. Gozzini, A. Lucchesini, S. Cartaleva, T. Karaulanov, C. Marinelli, and L. Moi, Phys. Rev. A 69, 063815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Childress, L.

M. D. Eisaman, L. Childress, A. André, F. Massou, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 233602 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coffer, J. G.

J. G. Coffer, M. Anderson, and J. C. Camparo, Phys. Rev. A 65, 033807 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cronin-Golomb, M.

Cyr, N.

N. Cyr, M. Tetu, and M. Breton, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 42, 640 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Delaney, M.

J. Vanier, M. W. Levine, D. Janssen, and M. Delaney, Phys. Rev. A 67, 1065801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Donoghue, J.

Eisaman, M. D.

M. D. Eisaman, L. Childress, A. André, F. Massou, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 233602 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleischhauer, M.

M. D. Lukin, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, H. G. Robinson, V. L. Velichansky, L. Hollberg, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2959 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Godone, A.

J. Vanier, A. Godone, and F. Levi, Phys. Rev. A 58, 2345 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gozzini, A.

G. Alzetta, A. Gozzini, L. Moi, and G. Orriols, Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis., B 36, 5 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Gozzini, S.

G. Alzetta, S. Gozzini, A. Lucchesini, S. Cartaleva, T. Karaulanov, C. Marinelli, and L. Moi, Phys. Rev. A 69, 063815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hemmer, P. R.

Hollberg, L.

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Vukicevic, A. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, F. Walls, J. Kitching, and H. Robinson, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47, 1122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Lukin, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, H. G. Robinson, V. L. Velichansky, L. Hollberg, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2959 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Zibrov, H. G. Robinson, V. L. Velichansky, V. V. Vasiliev, L. Hollberg, E. Arimando, M. D. Lukin, and M. O. Scully, in 5th Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology, J.C.Bergquist, ed. (World Scientific, 1996), pp. 490-492.

Janssen, D.

J. Vanier, M. W. Levine, D. Janssen, and M. Delaney, Phys. Rev. A 67, 1065801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Karaulanov, T.

G. Alzetta, S. Gozzini, A. Lucchesini, S. Cartaleva, T. Karaulanov, C. Marinelli, and L. Moi, Phys. Rev. A 69, 063815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Katz, D. P.

Kitching, J.

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Vukicevic, A. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, F. Walls, J. Kitching, and H. Robinson, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47, 1122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Knappe, S.

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, P.

Levi, F.

J. Vanier, A. Godone, and F. Levi, Phys. Rev. A 58, 2345 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Levine, M. W.

J. Vanier, M. W. Levine, D. Janssen, and M. Delaney, Phys. Rev. A 67, 1065801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liew, L. A.

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lu, B.

Lucchesini, A.

G. Alzetta, S. Gozzini, A. Lucchesini, S. Cartaleva, T. Karaulanov, C. Marinelli, and L. Moi, Phys. Rev. A 69, 063815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lukin, M. D.

M. D. Eisaman, L. Childress, A. André, F. Massou, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 233602 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Lukin, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, H. G. Robinson, V. L. Velichansky, L. Hollberg, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2959 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Zibrov, H. G. Robinson, V. L. Velichansky, V. V. Vasiliev, L. Hollberg, E. Arimando, M. D. Lukin, and M. O. Scully, in 5th Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology, J.C.Bergquist, ed. (World Scientific, 1996), pp. 490-492.

Marinelli, C.

G. Alzetta, S. Gozzini, A. Lucchesini, S. Cartaleva, T. Karaulanov, C. Marinelli, and L. Moi, Phys. Rev. A 69, 063815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Massou, F.

M. D. Eisaman, L. Childress, A. André, F. Massou, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 233602 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moi, L.

G. Alzetta, S. Gozzini, A. Lucchesini, S. Cartaleva, T. Karaulanov, C. Marinelli, and L. Moi, Phys. Rev. A 69, 063815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Alzetta, A. Gozzini, L. Moi, and G. Orriols, Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis., B 36, 5 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Moreland, J.

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Orriols, G.

G. Alzetta, A. Gozzini, L. Moi, and G. Orriols, Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis., B 36, 5 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, H.

N. Vukicevic, A. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, F. Walls, J. Kitching, and H. Robinson, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47, 1122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, H. G.

M. D. Lukin, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, H. G. Robinson, V. L. Velichansky, L. Hollberg, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2959 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Zibrov, H. G. Robinson, V. L. Velichansky, V. V. Vasiliev, L. Hollberg, E. Arimando, M. D. Lukin, and M. O. Scully, in 5th Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology, J.C.Bergquist, ed. (World Scientific, 1996), pp. 490-492.

Schwindt, P. D. D.

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Scully, M. O.

M. D. Lukin, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, H. G. Robinson, V. L. Velichansky, L. Hollberg, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2959 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Zibrov, H. G. Robinson, V. L. Velichansky, V. V. Vasiliev, L. Hollberg, E. Arimando, M. D. Lukin, and M. O. Scully, in 5th Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology, J.C.Bergquist, ed. (World Scientific, 1996), pp. 490-492.

Shah, V.

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shahriar, M. S.

Tetu, M.

N. Cyr, M. Tetu, and M. Breton, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 42, 640 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vanier, J.

J. Vanier, M. W. Levine, D. Janssen, and M. Delaney, Phys. Rev. A 67, 1065801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Vanier, A. Godone, and F. Levi, Phys. Rev. A 58, 2345 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vasiliev, V. V.

A. S. Zibrov, H. G. Robinson, V. L. Velichansky, V. V. Vasiliev, L. Hollberg, E. Arimando, M. D. Lukin, and M. O. Scully, in 5th Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology, J.C.Bergquist, ed. (World Scientific, 1996), pp. 490-492.

Velichansky, V. L.

M. D. Lukin, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, H. G. Robinson, V. L. Velichansky, L. Hollberg, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2959 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Zibrov, H. G. Robinson, V. L. Velichansky, V. V. Vasiliev, L. Hollberg, E. Arimando, M. D. Lukin, and M. O. Scully, in 5th Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology, J.C.Bergquist, ed. (World Scientific, 1996), pp. 490-492.

Vukicevic, N.

N. Vukicevic, A. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, F. Walls, J. Kitching, and H. Robinson, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47, 1122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Walls, F.

N. Vukicevic, A. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, F. Walls, J. Kitching, and H. Robinson, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47, 1122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, M.

Zhu, M.

M. Zhu, in 2003 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2003), p. 16.

Zibrov, A.

N. Vukicevic, A. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, F. Walls, J. Kitching, and H. Robinson, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47, 1122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zibrov, A. S.

M. D. Eisaman, L. Childress, A. André, F. Massou, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 233602 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Lukin, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, H. G. Robinson, V. L. Velichansky, L. Hollberg, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2959 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Zibrov, H. G. Robinson, V. L. Velichansky, V. V. Vasiliev, L. Hollberg, E. Arimando, M. D. Lukin, and M. O. Scully, in 5th Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology, J.C.Bergquist, ed. (World Scientific, 1996), pp. 490-492.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. A. Liew, and J. Moreland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.

N. Cyr, M. Tetu, and M. Breton, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 42, 640 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control

N. Vukicevic, A. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, F. Walls, J. Kitching, and H. Robinson, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47, 1122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis., B

G. Alzetta, A. Gozzini, L. Moi, and G. Orriols, Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis., B 36, 5 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

G. Alzetta, S. Gozzini, A. Lucchesini, S. Cartaleva, T. Karaulanov, C. Marinelli, and L. Moi, Phys. Rev. A 69, 063815 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Vanier, M. W. Levine, D. Janssen, and M. Delaney, Phys. Rev. A 67, 1065801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Vanier, A. Godone, and F. Levi, Phys. Rev. A 58, 2345 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Coffer, M. Anderson, and J. C. Camparo, Phys. Rev. A 65, 033807 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

M. D. Lukin, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, H. G. Robinson, V. L. Velichansky, L. Hollberg, and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2959 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Eisaman, L. Childress, A. André, F. Massou, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 233602 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

A. S. Zibrov, H. G. Robinson, V. L. Velichansky, V. V. Vasiliev, L. Hollberg, E. Arimando, M. D. Lukin, and M. O. Scully, in 5th Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology, J.C.Bergquist, ed. (World Scientific, 1996), pp. 490-492.

M. Zhu, in 2003 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2003), p. 16.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Level scheme used to generate a conjugate field using four-wave mixing in a double-Λ system in Rb 87 . Here Ω and Ω p are the Rabi frequencies due to light fields connecting the ground states and the excited states. For simplicity it is assumed that the excited states decay to the ground states with an equal decay rate given by Γ and that the ground state population and coherence decay at a rate given by γ.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Experimental setup used to observe the conjugate light field against a nearly zero light background. 1, Polarizing beam splitter. (b) Conjugate light field power detected as a function of detuning from the two-photon resonance (from 6.83468 GHz ). A, Light background due to a secondary laser mode.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Power of the generated conjugate light field at zero two-photon detuning as a function of Beam-2 intensity for different Beam-1 intensities. The peak pump intensities were A, 13.6; B, 6.2; C, 1.62 mW cm 2 . The pump and the probe powers were measured at the entrance of the Rb 87 vapor cell. Inset, coherence element, ρ 14 , at δ = 0 as a function of the probe optical pumping rate, T; Υ = 1.25 γ , Γ = 100 γ , and T was varied from 0 to 8 γ . The scale on the y axis ranged from 0 to 0.05.

Equations (1)

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ρ 14 = 1 Γ 2 T Υ ( γ + T + 2 Υ ) δ 2 + ( γ + T + 2 Υ ) 2 ,

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