Abstract

We have developed a compact, robust adaptive optics (AO) scanning laser ophthalmoscope using a microelectromechanical (MEMS) deformable mirror (DM). Facilitated with a Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor, the MEMS-DM-based AO operates a closed-loop modal wave aberration correction for the human eye and reduces wave aberrations in most eyes to below 0.1μm rms. Lateral resolution is enhanced, and images reveal a clear cone mosaic near the foveal center. The significant increase in throughput allows for a confocal pinhole whose diameter is less than the Airy disc of the collection lens, thereby fully exploiting the axial resolution capabilities of the system.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2006

2005

2004

2003

A. Pallikaris, D. R. Williams, and H. Hofer, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4580 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

1997

1996

R. H. Webb, Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 427 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1989

1987

1984

T. Wilson and C. J. R. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, 1984).

1981

R. H. Webb and G. W. Hughes, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 28, 488 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arathorn, D.

Artal, P.

Bierden, P.

Bierden, P. A.

T. G. Bifano, J. A. Perreault, P. A. Bierden, and C. E. Dimas, in Proc. SPIE 4825, 10 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bifano, T. G.

T. G. Bifano, J. A. Perreault, P. A. Bierden, and C. E. Dimas, in Proc. SPIE 4825, 10 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bille, J. F.

Campbell, M. C. W.

Chen, L.

Delori, F. C.

Dimas, C. E.

T. G. Bifano, J. A. Perreault, P. A. Bierden, and C. E. Dimas, in Proc. SPIE 4825, 10 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Doble, N.

Donnelly, W. J.

Dreher, A. W.

Drexler, W.

Fercher, A. F.

Fernandez, E. J.

Hebert, T. J.

Hermann, B.

Hofer, H.

A. Pallikaris, D. R. Williams, and H. Hofer, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4580 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Hofer, L. Chen, G. Y. Yoon, B. Singer, Y. Yamauchi, and D. R. Williams, Opt. Express 8, 631 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, X.

Hughes, G. W.

Iglesias, I.

Liang, J.

Miller, D. T.

Olivier, S.

Pallikaris, A.

A. Pallikaris, D. R. Williams, and H. Hofer, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4580 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Parker, A.

Perreault, J. A.

T. G. Bifano, J. A. Perreault, P. A. Bierden, and C. E. Dimas, in Proc. SPIE 4825, 10 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Prieto, P. M.

Queener, H.

Romero-Borja, F.

Roorda, A.

Sattmann, H.

Sheppard, C. J. R.

T. Wilson and C. J. R. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, 1984).

Singer, B.

Thibos, L. N.

Unterhuber, A.

Vargas-Martin, F.

Venkateswaran, K.

Vogel, C.

Webb, R. H.

R. H. Webb, Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 427 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Webb, G. W. Hughes, and F. C. Delori, Appl. Opt. 26, 1492 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Webb and G. W. Hughes, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 28, 488 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weinreb, R. N.

Williams, D. R.

Wilson, T.

T. Wilson and C. J. R. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, 1984).

Yamauchi, Y.

Yoon, G.

Yoon, G. Y.

Zhang, Y.

A. Roorda and Y. Zhang, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, E-Abstract 2433 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.

R. H. Webb and G. W. Hughes, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 28, 488 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci.

A. Pallikaris, D. R. Williams, and H. Hofer, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4580 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Roorda and Y. Zhang, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 46, E-Abstract 2433 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

T. G. Bifano, J. A. Perreault, P. A. Bierden, and C. E. Dimas, in Proc. SPIE 4825, 10 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys.

R. H. Webb, Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 427 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other

T. Wilson and C. J. R. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, 1984).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

LD, laser diode; FO, fiber output; PC, computer; D, display; BS, beam splitter; HS, horizontal scanner ( 16 KHz ) , VS, vertical scanner (30, 60 Hz ); CL, cylindrical lens; WS, wavefront sensor; CP, confocal pinhole; PMT, photomultiplier tube; L1–L6, achromatic lenses; M1–M3, flat mirrors; S1–S6, spherical mirrors.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

MEMS-DM-based AO performance.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Single frame taken before AO correction but after the best correction of defocus and astigmatism with trial lenses; (b) single frame taken after AO correction. (c) Registered set of 10 AO-corrected images. All images have been corrected for distortions due to eye movements.[18] These images were taken from a retinal location about 1° from the fovea center. The field of view subtends 0.9°, or approximately 270 μ m on a side. The image was taken with the 840 nm SLD.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a)–(c) Images taken with the 655 nm diode laser by using a (a) 75 μ m , (b) 50 μ m , and (c) 25 μ m pinhole. The location is about 1° from the foveal center, and the field of view is 1.5 ° × 0.75 ° .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) With smaller pinholes, the expected axial resolution, shown on the left ordinate, is improved, whereas the throughput, which is normalized by the intensity obtained by the 150 μ m pinhole and marked on the right ordinate, decreases.

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