We report a novel forward-imaging optical coherence tomography (OCT), needle-probe paired-angle-rotation scanning OCT (PARS-OCT) probe. The probe uses two rotating angled gradient-index lenses to scan the output OCT probe beam over a wide angular arc (19° half-angle) of the region forward of the probe. Among other advantages, this probe design is readily amenable to miniaturization and is capable of a variety of scan modes, including volumetric scans. To demonstrate the advantages of the probe design, we have constructed a prototype probe with an outer diameter of 1.65mm and employed it to acquire four OCT images, with a 45° angle between adjacent images, of the gill structure of a Xenopus laevis tadpole. The system sensitivity was measured to be 93dB by using the prototype probe with an illumination power of 450μW on the sample. Moreover, the axial and the lateral resolutions of the probe are 9.3 and 10.312.5μm, respectively.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2004 (2)

2003 (3)

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

T. A. King and G. M. Fuhrman, Semin Surg. Oncol. 20, 205 (2001).

2000 (1)

1996 (1)

Aguirre, A. D.

Boppart, S. A.

Bouma, B. E.

Brezinski, M. E.

Chen, Y.

Chen, Y. C.

Choma, M. A.

Chudoba, C.

Cobb, M. J.

Fedder, G. K.

Fuhrman, G. M.

T. A. King and G. M. Fuhrman, Semin Surg. Oncol. 20, 205 (2001).

Fujimoto, J. G.

Goodnow, J.

Herz, P. R.

Hsiung, P.

Izatt, J. A.

Jung, J. C.

Kimmey, M. B.

King, T. A.

T. A. King and G. M. Fuhrman, Semin Surg. Oncol. 20, 205 (2001).

Ko, T.

Li, X. D.

Liu, X. M.

Madden, K.

Pan, Y. T.

Petersen, C.

Pitris, C.

Reed, W. A.

Sarunic, M. V.

Schmitt, J.

Schneider, K.

Schnitzer, M. J.

Southern, J. F.

Tearney, G. J.

Weissman, N. J.

Xie, H. K.

Xie, T. Q.

Yan, M. F.

Yang, C. H.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the forward-cone-imaging needle probe. (a) The case when there is an angle between the two angled surfaces of the GRIN lenses; the exit laser beam is tilted; (b) The case when the two angled surfaces of the GRIN lenses are parallel; the exit laser beam is undeviated; (c) PARS-OCT probe setup; (d) profile of PARS-OCT B-scan mode. SMF, single-mode fiber; GL1, GRIN lens 1; GL2, GRIN lens 2; IN, inner needle; ON, outer needle; MS, metal sleeve; M, motor; G, gear.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Calculated B-scan mode profile as projected in the focal plane of the exit beam. (b) Calculated and measured exit beam polar angle, θ , versus the difference between the orientation angles of the two GRIN lenses, ζ 1 ζ 2 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

OCT images of the gill pockets of a stage 54 Xenopus laevis tadpole. (a) Photograph of the probe and the tadpole when the images are acquired. (b) Indication of scan locations (c)–(f) in the tadpole. (c)–(f) OCT images acquired by the PARS-OCT probe; g, gill pockets.

Equations (2)

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θ = N 0 A sin ( Z A ) d tan ( ψ ) ( α ψ ) + N 0 cos ( Z A ) θ 1 ,
θ 1 = [ ( 1 1 N 0 ) 2 sin 2 ψ + 2 ( 1 N 0 1 N 0 2 ) ( α ψ ) sin ψ cos ( ξ 1 ξ 2 ) + ( α ψ N 0 ) 2 ] 1 2