Abstract

For the first time to the authors’ knowledge, fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) with >80° tilted structures have been fabricated and characterized. Their performance in sensing temperature, strain, and the surrounding medium’s refractive index was investigated. In comparison with normal FBGs and long-period gratings (LPGs), >80° tilted FBGs exhibit significantly higher refractive-index responsivity and lower thermal cross sensitivity. When the grating sensor was used to detect changes in refractive index, a responsivity as high as 340nm/refractive-index unit near an index of 1.33 was demonstrated, which is three times higher than that of conventional LPGs.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

K. S. Feder, P. S. Westbrook, J. Ging, P. I. Reyes, and G. E. Carver, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 933 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

R. S. Westbrook, K. S. Feder, P. I. Reyes, P. Steinvurzel, B. J. Eggleton, R. G. Ernst, L. A. Reith, and D. M. Gill, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 680-682, paper ThGG49.

J. Peupelmann, E. Krause, A. Bandemer, and C. Schäffer, Electron. Lett. 38, 1248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

S. J. Mihailov, R. B. Walker, T. J. Stocki, and D. C. Johnson, Electron. Lett. 37, 284 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, B. A. L. Gwandu, Y. Liu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Opt. Lett. 26, 774 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

P. S. Westbrook, T. A. Strasser, and T. Erdogan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1352 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

J. L. WagenerT. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. Demarco, and D. J. Digivanni, in 23rd European Conference on Optical Communication, Conf. Publ 448, (Institute of Electrical Engineers, 1997), pp. 65-68.

B. H. Lee, Y. Liu, S. B. Lee, S. S. Choi, and J. N. Jang, Opt. Lett. 22, 1769 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

R. Kashyap, R. Wyatt, and R. J. Campbell, Electron. Lett. 29, 154 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bandemer, A.

J. Peupelmann, E. Krause, A. Bandemer, and C. Schäffer, Electron. Lett. 38, 1248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

Campbell, R. J.

R. Kashyap, R. Wyatt, and R. J. Campbell, Electron. Lett. 29, 154 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Carver, G. E.

K. S. Feder, P. S. Westbrook, J. Ging, P. I. Reyes, and G. E. Carver, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 933 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

Choi, S. S.

Demarco, J.

J. L. WagenerT. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. Demarco, and D. J. Digivanni, in 23rd European Conference on Optical Communication, Conf. Publ 448, (Institute of Electrical Engineers, 1997), pp. 65-68.

Digivanni, D. J.

J. L. WagenerT. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. Demarco, and D. J. Digivanni, in 23rd European Conference on Optical Communication, Conf. Publ 448, (Institute of Electrical Engineers, 1997), pp. 65-68.

Eggleton, B. J.

R. S. Westbrook, K. S. Feder, P. I. Reyes, P. Steinvurzel, B. J. Eggleton, R. G. Ernst, L. A. Reith, and D. M. Gill, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 680-682, paper ThGG49.

Erdogan, T.

P. S. Westbrook, T. A. Strasser, and T. Erdogan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1352 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ernst, R. G.

R. S. Westbrook, K. S. Feder, P. I. Reyes, P. Steinvurzel, B. J. Eggleton, R. G. Ernst, L. A. Reith, and D. M. Gill, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 680-682, paper ThGG49.

Feder, K. S.

K. S. Feder, P. S. Westbrook, J. Ging, P. I. Reyes, and G. E. Carver, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 933 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Westbrook, K. S. Feder, P. I. Reyes, P. Steinvurzel, B. J. Eggleton, R. G. Ernst, L. A. Reith, and D. M. Gill, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 680-682, paper ThGG49.

Gill, D. M.

R. S. Westbrook, K. S. Feder, P. I. Reyes, P. Steinvurzel, B. J. Eggleton, R. G. Ernst, L. A. Reith, and D. M. Gill, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 680-682, paper ThGG49.

Ging, J.

K. S. Feder, P. S. Westbrook, J. Ging, P. I. Reyes, and G. E. Carver, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 933 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gwandu, B. A. L.

Jang, J. N.

Johnson, D. C.

S. J. Mihailov, R. B. Walker, T. J. Stocki, and D. C. Johnson, Electron. Lett. 37, 284 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kashyap, R.

R. Kashyap, R. Wyatt, and R. J. Campbell, Electron. Lett. 29, 154 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Krause, E.

J. Peupelmann, E. Krause, A. Bandemer, and C. Schäffer, Electron. Lett. 38, 1248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. H.

Lee, S. B.

Liu, Y.

Mihailov, S. J.

S. J. Mihailov, R. B. Walker, T. J. Stocki, and D. C. Johnson, Electron. Lett. 37, 284 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pedrazzani, J. R.

J. L. WagenerT. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. Demarco, and D. J. Digivanni, in 23rd European Conference on Optical Communication, Conf. Publ 448, (Institute of Electrical Engineers, 1997), pp. 65-68.

Peupelmann, J.

J. Peupelmann, E. Krause, A. Bandemer, and C. Schäffer, Electron. Lett. 38, 1248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Reith, L. A.

R. S. Westbrook, K. S. Feder, P. I. Reyes, P. Steinvurzel, B. J. Eggleton, R. G. Ernst, L. A. Reith, and D. M. Gill, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 680-682, paper ThGG49.

Reyes, P. I.

K. S. Feder, P. S. Westbrook, J. Ging, P. I. Reyes, and G. E. Carver, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 933 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Westbrook, K. S. Feder, P. I. Reyes, P. Steinvurzel, B. J. Eggleton, R. G. Ernst, L. A. Reith, and D. M. Gill, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 680-682, paper ThGG49.

Schäffer, C.

J. Peupelmann, E. Krause, A. Bandemer, and C. Schäffer, Electron. Lett. 38, 1248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shu, X.

Simpson, A. G.

Steinvurzel, P.

R. S. Westbrook, K. S. Feder, P. I. Reyes, P. Steinvurzel, B. J. Eggleton, R. G. Ernst, L. A. Reith, and D. M. Gill, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 680-682, paper ThGG49.

Stocki, T. J.

S. J. Mihailov, R. B. Walker, T. J. Stocki, and D. C. Johnson, Electron. Lett. 37, 284 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Strasser, T. A.

P. S. Westbrook, T. A. Strasser, and T. Erdogan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1352 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. L. WagenerT. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. Demarco, and D. J. Digivanni, in 23rd European Conference on Optical Communication, Conf. Publ 448, (Institute of Electrical Engineers, 1997), pp. 65-68.

Wagener, J. L.

J. L. WagenerT. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. Demarco, and D. J. Digivanni, in 23rd European Conference on Optical Communication, Conf. Publ 448, (Institute of Electrical Engineers, 1997), pp. 65-68.

Walker, R. B.

S. J. Mihailov, R. B. Walker, T. J. Stocki, and D. C. Johnson, Electron. Lett. 37, 284 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Westbrook, P. S.

K. S. Feder, P. S. Westbrook, J. Ging, P. I. Reyes, and G. E. Carver, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 933 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Westbrook, T. A. Strasser, and T. Erdogan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1352 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Westbrook, R. S.

R. S. Westbrook, K. S. Feder, P. I. Reyes, P. Steinvurzel, B. J. Eggleton, R. G. Ernst, L. A. Reith, and D. M. Gill, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 680-682, paper ThGG49.

Wyatt, R.

R. Kashyap, R. Wyatt, and R. J. Campbell, Electron. Lett. 29, 154 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

Zhou, K.

Electron. Lett. (3)

R. Kashyap, R. Wyatt, and R. J. Campbell, Electron. Lett. 29, 154 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Peupelmann, E. Krause, A. Bandemer, and C. Schäffer, Electron. Lett. 38, 1248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Mihailov, R. B. Walker, T. J. Stocki, and D. C. Johnson, Electron. Lett. 37, 284 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

P. S. Westbrook, T. A. Strasser, and T. Erdogan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1352 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Feder, P. S. Westbrook, J. Ging, P. I. Reyes, and G. E. Carver, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 933 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (2)

R. S. Westbrook, K. S. Feder, P. I. Reyes, P. Steinvurzel, B. J. Eggleton, R. G. Ernst, L. A. Reith, and D. M. Gill, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2002), pp. 680-682, paper ThGG49.

J. L. WagenerT. A. Strasser, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. Demarco, and D. J. Digivanni, in 23rd European Conference on Optical Communication, Conf. Publ 448, (Institute of Electrical Engineers, 1997), pp. 65-68.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Phase-matching conditions for (a) small tilted structures and backward-propagating coupling and (b) large tilted structures and forward-propagating coupling. (c) When the tilted angle satisfies δ 1 c < δ < δ 2 c , radiation mode coupling is facilitated. (d) Image of tilted fringes of an 81 ° TFBG.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Series of dual-peak resonances from 1200 to 1700 nm with separation of 7 nm appear in the transmission spectrum of an 81 ° TFBG. (b) The dual-peak feature is caused by the polarization state of the input light.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Wavelength shift versus temperature of the 81 ° TFBG, showing a linear temperature response with a significantly lower thermal coefficient. (b) SRI-induced wavelength shifts in the index range from 1.3 to 1.4 for peaks at the shorter- and longer-wavelength sides, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Strain responses of the 81 ° TFBG: (a) linear and negative strain response for a peak at the shorter-wavelength side and (b) the wavelength shift caused by strain depends on mode order and polarization.

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