Abstract

We study the role of the bias current sweep rate in measurements of polarization switching (PS) of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). We show that the polarization-resolved LI (light–intensity) curve depends on the current sweep rate. As the current sweep rate increases, the PS occurs at higher bias currents for upward scans and at lower bias currents for downward scans. We also show that the delay of the dynamical bifurcation follows a power law relationship with the frequency of the ramp, in good agreement with recent theoretical predictions.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Mukaihara, N. Ohnoki, Y. Hayashi, N. Hatori, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 667 (1995).
  2. J. Martin-Regalado, F. Prati, M. San Miguel, and N. B. Abraham, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 765 (1997).
  3. M. Sciamanna, H. Thienpont, I. Veretennicoff, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, Opt. Lett. 28, 1543 (2003).
    [PubMed]
  4. V. Badilita, J.-F. Carlin, M. Ilegems, M. Brunner, G. Verschaffelt, and K. Panajotov, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 365 (2004).
  5. L. M. Augustin, E. Smalbrugge, K. D. Choquette, F. Karouta, R. C. Strijbos, G. Verschaffelt, E.-J. Geluk, T. G. van de Roer, and H. Thienpont, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 708 (2004).
  6. M. Sondermann, M. Weinkath, and T. Ackemann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 97 (2004).
  7. Y. Hong, P. S. Spencer, and K. A. Shore, Opt. Lett. 29, 2151 (2004).
    [PubMed]
  8. J. Danckaert, M. Peeters, C. Mirasso, M. San Miguel, G. Verschaffelt, J. Albert, B. Nagler, H. Unold, R. Michalzik, G. Giacomelli, and F. Marin, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 911 (2004).
  9. P. Mandel, Theoretical Problems in Cavity Nonlinear Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 1997).
  10. J. R. Tredicce, G. L. Lippi, P. Mandel, B. Charasse, A. Chevalier, and B. Picque, Am. J. Phys. 72, 799 (2004).
  11. C. Masoller, M. S. Torre, and P. Mandel, "Influence of the injection current sweep rate on the polarisation switching of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," J. Appl. Phys. (to be published); preprint, www.fisica.edu.uy/~cris/publications.html.
  12. M. C. Torrent and M. San Miguel, Phys. Rev. A 38, 245 (1988).
    [PubMed]

2004

V. Badilita, J.-F. Carlin, M. Ilegems, M. Brunner, G. Verschaffelt, and K. Panajotov, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 365 (2004).

L. M. Augustin, E. Smalbrugge, K. D. Choquette, F. Karouta, R. C. Strijbos, G. Verschaffelt, E.-J. Geluk, T. G. van de Roer, and H. Thienpont, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 708 (2004).

M. Sondermann, M. Weinkath, and T. Ackemann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 97 (2004).

J. Danckaert, M. Peeters, C. Mirasso, M. San Miguel, G. Verschaffelt, J. Albert, B. Nagler, H. Unold, R. Michalzik, G. Giacomelli, and F. Marin, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 911 (2004).

J. R. Tredicce, G. L. Lippi, P. Mandel, B. Charasse, A. Chevalier, and B. Picque, Am. J. Phys. 72, 799 (2004).

Y. Hong, P. S. Spencer, and K. A. Shore, Opt. Lett. 29, 2151 (2004).
[PubMed]

2003

1997

J. Martin-Regalado, F. Prati, M. San Miguel, and N. B. Abraham, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 765 (1997).

1995

T. Mukaihara, N. Ohnoki, Y. Hayashi, N. Hatori, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 667 (1995).

1988

M. C. Torrent and M. San Miguel, Phys. Rev. A 38, 245 (1988).
[PubMed]

Abraham, N. B.

J. Martin-Regalado, F. Prati, M. San Miguel, and N. B. Abraham, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 765 (1997).

Ackemann, T.

M. Sondermann, M. Weinkath, and T. Ackemann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 97 (2004).

Albert, J.

J. Danckaert, M. Peeters, C. Mirasso, M. San Miguel, G. Verschaffelt, J. Albert, B. Nagler, H. Unold, R. Michalzik, G. Giacomelli, and F. Marin, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 911 (2004).

Augustin, L. M.

L. M. Augustin, E. Smalbrugge, K. D. Choquette, F. Karouta, R. C. Strijbos, G. Verschaffelt, E.-J. Geluk, T. G. van de Roer, and H. Thienpont, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 708 (2004).

Badilita, V.

V. Badilita, J.-F. Carlin, M. Ilegems, M. Brunner, G. Verschaffelt, and K. Panajotov, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 365 (2004).

Blondel, M.

Brunner, M.

V. Badilita, J.-F. Carlin, M. Ilegems, M. Brunner, G. Verschaffelt, and K. Panajotov, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 365 (2004).

Carlin, J.-F.

V. Badilita, J.-F. Carlin, M. Ilegems, M. Brunner, G. Verschaffelt, and K. Panajotov, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 365 (2004).

Charasse, B.

J. R. Tredicce, G. L. Lippi, P. Mandel, B. Charasse, A. Chevalier, and B. Picque, Am. J. Phys. 72, 799 (2004).

Chevalier, A.

J. R. Tredicce, G. L. Lippi, P. Mandel, B. Charasse, A. Chevalier, and B. Picque, Am. J. Phys. 72, 799 (2004).

Choquette, K. D.

L. M. Augustin, E. Smalbrugge, K. D. Choquette, F. Karouta, R. C. Strijbos, G. Verschaffelt, E.-J. Geluk, T. G. van de Roer, and H. Thienpont, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 708 (2004).

Danckaert, J.

J. Danckaert, M. Peeters, C. Mirasso, M. San Miguel, G. Verschaffelt, J. Albert, B. Nagler, H. Unold, R. Michalzik, G. Giacomelli, and F. Marin, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 911 (2004).

Geluk, E.-J.

L. M. Augustin, E. Smalbrugge, K. D. Choquette, F. Karouta, R. C. Strijbos, G. Verschaffelt, E.-J. Geluk, T. G. van de Roer, and H. Thienpont, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 708 (2004).

Giacomelli, G.

J. Danckaert, M. Peeters, C. Mirasso, M. San Miguel, G. Verschaffelt, J. Albert, B. Nagler, H. Unold, R. Michalzik, G. Giacomelli, and F. Marin, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 911 (2004).

Hatori, N.

T. Mukaihara, N. Ohnoki, Y. Hayashi, N. Hatori, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 667 (1995).

Hayashi, Y.

T. Mukaihara, N. Ohnoki, Y. Hayashi, N. Hatori, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 667 (1995).

Hong, Y.

Iga, K.

T. Mukaihara, N. Ohnoki, Y. Hayashi, N. Hatori, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 667 (1995).

Ilegems, M.

V. Badilita, J.-F. Carlin, M. Ilegems, M. Brunner, G. Verschaffelt, and K. Panajotov, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 365 (2004).

Karouta, F.

L. M. Augustin, E. Smalbrugge, K. D. Choquette, F. Karouta, R. C. Strijbos, G. Verschaffelt, E.-J. Geluk, T. G. van de Roer, and H. Thienpont, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 708 (2004).

Koyama, F.

T. Mukaihara, N. Ohnoki, Y. Hayashi, N. Hatori, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 667 (1995).

Lippi, G. L.

J. R. Tredicce, G. L. Lippi, P. Mandel, B. Charasse, A. Chevalier, and B. Picque, Am. J. Phys. 72, 799 (2004).

Mandel, P.

J. R. Tredicce, G. L. Lippi, P. Mandel, B. Charasse, A. Chevalier, and B. Picque, Am. J. Phys. 72, 799 (2004).

C. Masoller, M. S. Torre, and P. Mandel, "Influence of the injection current sweep rate on the polarisation switching of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," J. Appl. Phys. (to be published); preprint, www.fisica.edu.uy/~cris/publications.html.

P. Mandel, Theoretical Problems in Cavity Nonlinear Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 1997).

Marin, F.

J. Danckaert, M. Peeters, C. Mirasso, M. San Miguel, G. Verschaffelt, J. Albert, B. Nagler, H. Unold, R. Michalzik, G. Giacomelli, and F. Marin, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 911 (2004).

Martin-Regalado, J.

J. Martin-Regalado, F. Prati, M. San Miguel, and N. B. Abraham, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 765 (1997).

Masoller, C.

C. Masoller, M. S. Torre, and P. Mandel, "Influence of the injection current sweep rate on the polarisation switching of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," J. Appl. Phys. (to be published); preprint, www.fisica.edu.uy/~cris/publications.html.

Megret, P.

Michalzik, R.

J. Danckaert, M. Peeters, C. Mirasso, M. San Miguel, G. Verschaffelt, J. Albert, B. Nagler, H. Unold, R. Michalzik, G. Giacomelli, and F. Marin, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 911 (2004).

Mirasso, C.

J. Danckaert, M. Peeters, C. Mirasso, M. San Miguel, G. Verschaffelt, J. Albert, B. Nagler, H. Unold, R. Michalzik, G. Giacomelli, and F. Marin, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 911 (2004).

Mukaihara, T.

T. Mukaihara, N. Ohnoki, Y. Hayashi, N. Hatori, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 667 (1995).

Nagler, B.

J. Danckaert, M. Peeters, C. Mirasso, M. San Miguel, G. Verschaffelt, J. Albert, B. Nagler, H. Unold, R. Michalzik, G. Giacomelli, and F. Marin, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 911 (2004).

Ohnoki, N.

T. Mukaihara, N. Ohnoki, Y. Hayashi, N. Hatori, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 667 (1995).

Panajotov, K.

V. Badilita, J.-F. Carlin, M. Ilegems, M. Brunner, G. Verschaffelt, and K. Panajotov, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 365 (2004).

Peeters, M.

J. Danckaert, M. Peeters, C. Mirasso, M. San Miguel, G. Verschaffelt, J. Albert, B. Nagler, H. Unold, R. Michalzik, G. Giacomelli, and F. Marin, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 911 (2004).

Picque, B.

J. R. Tredicce, G. L. Lippi, P. Mandel, B. Charasse, A. Chevalier, and B. Picque, Am. J. Phys. 72, 799 (2004).

Prati, F.

J. Martin-Regalado, F. Prati, M. San Miguel, and N. B. Abraham, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 765 (1997).

San Miguel, M.

J. Danckaert, M. Peeters, C. Mirasso, M. San Miguel, G. Verschaffelt, J. Albert, B. Nagler, H. Unold, R. Michalzik, G. Giacomelli, and F. Marin, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 911 (2004).

J. Martin-Regalado, F. Prati, M. San Miguel, and N. B. Abraham, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 765 (1997).

M. C. Torrent and M. San Miguel, Phys. Rev. A 38, 245 (1988).
[PubMed]

Sciamanna, M.

Shore, K. A.

Smalbrugge, E.

L. M. Augustin, E. Smalbrugge, K. D. Choquette, F. Karouta, R. C. Strijbos, G. Verschaffelt, E.-J. Geluk, T. G. van de Roer, and H. Thienpont, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 708 (2004).

Sondermann, M.

M. Sondermann, M. Weinkath, and T. Ackemann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 97 (2004).

Spencer, P. S.

Strijbos, R. C.

L. M. Augustin, E. Smalbrugge, K. D. Choquette, F. Karouta, R. C. Strijbos, G. Verschaffelt, E.-J. Geluk, T. G. van de Roer, and H. Thienpont, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 708 (2004).

Thienpont, H.

L. M. Augustin, E. Smalbrugge, K. D. Choquette, F. Karouta, R. C. Strijbos, G. Verschaffelt, E.-J. Geluk, T. G. van de Roer, and H. Thienpont, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 708 (2004).

M. Sciamanna, H. Thienpont, I. Veretennicoff, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, Opt. Lett. 28, 1543 (2003).
[PubMed]

Torre, M. S.

C. Masoller, M. S. Torre, and P. Mandel, "Influence of the injection current sweep rate on the polarisation switching of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," J. Appl. Phys. (to be published); preprint, www.fisica.edu.uy/~cris/publications.html.

Torrent, M. C.

M. C. Torrent and M. San Miguel, Phys. Rev. A 38, 245 (1988).
[PubMed]

Tredicce, J. R.

J. R. Tredicce, G. L. Lippi, P. Mandel, B. Charasse, A. Chevalier, and B. Picque, Am. J. Phys. 72, 799 (2004).

Unold, H.

J. Danckaert, M. Peeters, C. Mirasso, M. San Miguel, G. Verschaffelt, J. Albert, B. Nagler, H. Unold, R. Michalzik, G. Giacomelli, and F. Marin, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 911 (2004).

van de Roer, T. G.

L. M. Augustin, E. Smalbrugge, K. D. Choquette, F. Karouta, R. C. Strijbos, G. Verschaffelt, E.-J. Geluk, T. G. van de Roer, and H. Thienpont, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 708 (2004).

Veretennicoff, I.

Verschaffelt, G.

L. M. Augustin, E. Smalbrugge, K. D. Choquette, F. Karouta, R. C. Strijbos, G. Verschaffelt, E.-J. Geluk, T. G. van de Roer, and H. Thienpont, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 708 (2004).

J. Danckaert, M. Peeters, C. Mirasso, M. San Miguel, G. Verschaffelt, J. Albert, B. Nagler, H. Unold, R. Michalzik, G. Giacomelli, and F. Marin, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 911 (2004).

V. Badilita, J.-F. Carlin, M. Ilegems, M. Brunner, G. Verschaffelt, and K. Panajotov, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 365 (2004).

Weinkath, M.

M. Sondermann, M. Weinkath, and T. Ackemann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 97 (2004).

Am. J. Phys.

J. R. Tredicce, G. L. Lippi, P. Mandel, B. Charasse, A. Chevalier, and B. Picque, Am. J. Phys. 72, 799 (2004).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

M. Sondermann, M. Weinkath, and T. Ackemann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 97 (2004).

J. Martin-Regalado, F. Prati, M. San Miguel, and N. B. Abraham, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 765 (1997).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

J. Danckaert, M. Peeters, C. Mirasso, M. San Miguel, G. Verschaffelt, J. Albert, B. Nagler, H. Unold, R. Michalzik, G. Giacomelli, and F. Marin, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 911 (2004).

T. Mukaihara, N. Ohnoki, Y. Hayashi, N. Hatori, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 667 (1995).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

V. Badilita, J.-F. Carlin, M. Ilegems, M. Brunner, G. Verschaffelt, and K. Panajotov, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 365 (2004).

L. M. Augustin, E. Smalbrugge, K. D. Choquette, F. Karouta, R. C. Strijbos, G. Verschaffelt, E.-J. Geluk, T. G. van de Roer, and H. Thienpont, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 708 (2004).

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

M. C. Torrent and M. San Miguel, Phys. Rev. A 38, 245 (1988).
[PubMed]

Other

C. Masoller, M. S. Torre, and P. Mandel, "Influence of the injection current sweep rate on the polarisation switching of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," J. Appl. Phys. (to be published); preprint, www.fisica.edu.uy/~cris/publications.html.

P. Mandel, Theoretical Problems in Cavity Nonlinear Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 1997).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of experimental arrangement. HWP, half-wave plate; PBS, polarization beam splitter; ISO1, ISO2, optical isolators; D1, D2, photodetectors; M, mirror; OSC, oscilloscope.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Time evolution of the X polarization (thick gray curve) and of the Y polarization (thin black curve) during one cycle of the modulating signal of f = 60 Hz (shown with a dotted curve, shifted vertically by 1.5 mA for clarity). (b) Polarization-resolved L I curve (several cycles of the modulating signal are shown). The PS point for increasing current, for decreasing current, and the turn-on for increasing current are indicated by circles, diamonds, and triangles, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Time evolution of the X polarization (thick gray curve) and of the Y polarization (thin black curve) during one cycle of the modulating signal of f = 20 kHz (shown with a dotted curve, shifted vertically by 1.5 mA for clarity). (b) Polarization-resolved L I curve (several cycles of the modulating signal are shown). The PS point for increasing current, for decreasing current, and the turn-on for increasing current are indicated by circles, diamonds, and triangles, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Log-linear plot of the PS point for (a) increasing and (b) decreasing bias current versus the frequency of the ramp. Log–log plot of PS time for (c) increasing and (d) decreasing bias current versus the frequency of the ramp. The dashed lines indicate the linear fit log ( t 1 , 2 * ) = a log ( f ) + b .

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