Abstract

An integrated electro-optic waveguide modulator is demonstrated in bulk fused silica. A Mach–Zehnder interferometer waveguide structure is fabricated by direct writing with a femtosecond laser followed by thermal poling. A 20° electro-optic phase shift is achieved at an operating wavelength of 1.55μm with an applied voltage of 400 V and an interaction length of 25.6 mm, which correspond to an estimated effective electro-optic coefficient of 0.17pmV for the TE-polarized mode.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2005 (1)

2004 (1)

H. An and S. Fleming, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5819 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

2002 (2)

Y. Ren, C. J. Marckmann, J. Arentoft, and M. Kristensen, IEEE Photon. 14, 639 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Corbari, J. D. Mills, O. Deparis, B. G. Klappauf, and P. G. Kazansky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1585 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Abe, T. Kitagawa, K. Hattori, A. Himeno, and Y. Ohmori, Electron. Lett. 32, 893 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

1992 (1)

A. Okada, K. Ishii, K. Mito, and K. Sasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2853 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

Abe, M.

M. Abe, T. Kitagawa, K. Hattori, A. Himeno, and Y. Ohmori, Electron. Lett. 32, 893 (1996).
[CrossRef]

An, H.

H. An and S. Fleming, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5819 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arentoft, J.

Y. Ren, C. J. Marckmann, J. Arentoft, and M. Kristensen, IEEE Photon. 14, 639 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bado, P.

P. Bado, A. A. Said, and M. Dugan, presented at the International Conference on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics, Jacksonville, Fla., October 13-16, 2003.

Brueck, S. R.

Cao, X.

X. Cao and S.-L. He, Chin. Phys. Lett. 20, 1081 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carvalho, I. C.

F. P. Mezzspesa, I. C. S. Carvalho, C. Corbari, P. G. Kazansky, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Chen, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (CLEO 2005) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper CMW 7.

Chen, G.

F. P. Mezzspesa, I. C. S. Carvalho, C. Corbari, P. G. Kazansky, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Chen, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (CLEO 2005) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper CMW 7.

Corbari, C.

C. Corbari, J. D. Mills, O. Deparis, B. G. Klappauf, and P. G. Kazansky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1585 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. P. Mezzspesa, I. C. S. Carvalho, C. Corbari, P. G. Kazansky, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Chen, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (CLEO 2005) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper CMW 7.

Deparis, O.

C. Corbari, J. D. Mills, O. Deparis, B. G. Klappauf, and P. G. Kazansky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1585 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Digonnet, J. F.

Dugan, M.

P. Bado, A. A. Said, and M. Dugan, presented at the International Conference on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics, Jacksonville, Fla., October 13-16, 2003.

Fleming, S.

H. An and S. Fleming, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5819 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Florea, C.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Hattori, K.

M. Abe, T. Kitagawa, K. Hattori, A. Himeno, and Y. Ohmori, Electron. Lett. 32, 893 (1996).
[CrossRef]

He, S.-L.

X. Cao and S.-L. He, Chin. Phys. Lett. 20, 1081 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Himeno, A.

M. Abe, T. Kitagawa, K. Hattori, A. Himeno, and Y. Ohmori, Electron. Lett. 32, 893 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

Ishii, K.

A. Okada, K. Ishii, K. Mito, and K. Sasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2853 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kazansky, P. G.

C. Corbari, J. D. Mills, O. Deparis, B. G. Klappauf, and P. G. Kazansky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1585 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. P. Mezzspesa, I. C. S. Carvalho, C. Corbari, P. G. Kazansky, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Chen, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (CLEO 2005) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper CMW 7.

Kino, G. S.

Kitagawa, T.

M. Abe, T. Kitagawa, K. Hattori, A. Himeno, and Y. Ohmori, Electron. Lett. 32, 893 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Klappauf, B. G.

C. Corbari, J. D. Mills, O. Deparis, B. G. Klappauf, and P. G. Kazansky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1585 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kowalevicz, A. M.

Kristensen, M.

Y. Ren, C. J. Marckmann, J. Arentoft, and M. Kristensen, IEEE Photon. 14, 639 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A. C.

Long, X.-C.

Marckmann, C. J.

Y. Ren, C. J. Marckmann, J. Arentoft, and M. Kristensen, IEEE Photon. 14, 639 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mezzspesa, F. P.

F. P. Mezzspesa, I. C. S. Carvalho, C. Corbari, P. G. Kazansky, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Chen, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (CLEO 2005) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper CMW 7.

Mills, J. D.

C. Corbari, J. D. Mills, O. Deparis, B. G. Klappauf, and P. G. Kazansky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1585 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Minoshima, K.

Mito, K.

A. Okada, K. Ishii, K. Mito, and K. Sasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2853 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, N.

Myers, R. A.

Ohmori, Y.

M. Abe, T. Kitagawa, K. Hattori, A. Himeno, and Y. Ohmori, Electron. Lett. 32, 893 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Okada, A.

A. Okada, K. Ishii, K. Mito, and K. Sasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2853 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ren, Y.

Y. Ren, C. J. Marckmann, J. Arentoft, and M. Kristensen, IEEE Photon. 14, 639 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

P. Bado, A. A. Said, and M. Dugan, presented at the International Conference on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics, Jacksonville, Fla., October 13-16, 2003.

Sasaki, K.

A. Okada, K. Ishii, K. Mito, and K. Sasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2853 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, V.

Wilkinson, J. S.

F. P. Mezzspesa, I. C. S. Carvalho, C. Corbari, P. G. Kazansky, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Chen, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (CLEO 2005) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper CMW 7.

Winick, K. A.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. Okada, K. Ishii, K. Mito, and K. Sasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2853 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. An and S. Fleming, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5819 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Corbari, J. D. Mills, O. Deparis, B. G. Klappauf, and P. G. Kazansky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1585 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

X. Cao and S.-L. He, Chin. Phys. Lett. 20, 1081 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Abe, T. Kitagawa, K. Hattori, A. Himeno, and Y. Ohmori, Electron. Lett. 32, 893 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. (1)

Y. Ren, C. J. Marckmann, J. Arentoft, and M. Kristensen, IEEE Photon. 14, 639 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (2)

P. Bado, A. A. Said, and M. Dugan, presented at the International Conference on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics, Jacksonville, Fla., October 13-16, 2003.

F. P. Mezzspesa, I. C. S. Carvalho, C. Corbari, P. G. Kazansky, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Chen, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (CLEO 2005) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper CMW 7.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(Color online) Schematic diagram of a three-dimensional integrated MZI-type EO modulator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Refractive-index contour plot of the femtosecond laser direct-written waveguide measured by a RNF profilometer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Maker fringe measurement data on the thermally poled MZI sample for p polarization. SHG, second-harmonic generation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Spectral responses of the integrated MZI-type EO modulator at four voltages.

Equations (3)

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[ 0 0 0 0 d 31 0 0 0 0 d 31 0 0 d 31 d 31 d 33 0 0 0 ] .
Δ ϕ = 2 π λ r 13 eff n 3 2 E L ,
r i j 2 χ i j ( 2 ) n 4 .

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