Abstract

A simple method for frequency locking a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser to the center of line 1109 of the iodine absorption spectrum is described. The 31.6GHz frequency shift provided by stimulated-Brillouin scattering from a single-mode silica fiber provides a probe signal that lies on the edge of line 1105 of the iodine spectrum. We adjust the frequency of the laser to maintain the transmission of a 5cm iodine absorption cell at a value that places the unshifted laser line in the center of line 1109.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. Eloranta, in Lidar: Range Resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, C.Weitkamp, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 2005), pp. 143-164.
  2. P. Pirronen and E. Eloranta, Opt. Lett. 19, 234 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Hair, L. Caldwell, D. Krueger, and C. She, Appl. Opt. 40, 5280 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Miles, W. Lempert, and J. Forkey, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, R33 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Miles, A. Yalin, Z. Tange, S. Zaidi, and J. Forkey, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 442 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Schoen and D. Jackson, J. Phys. E 5, 519 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Arie, S. Schiller, E. Gustafson, and R. Byer, Opt. Lett. 17, 1204 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Arie and R. Byer, Appl. Opt. 32, 7382 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Yokoyama, T. Yokoyama, T. Araki, T. Hayashi, and N. Suzuki, Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 1252 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Pirronen, "A high spectral resolution lidar based on an iodine absorption filter," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Joensuu, 1994).
  11. S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, Atlas du spectre d'absorption de la molecule d'iode (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1978).
  12. J. Forkey, "Development and demonstration of filtered Rayleigh scattering--a laser based flow diagnostic for planar measurement of velocity, temperature, and pressure," Ph.D. dissertation (Princeton University, 1996).
  13. J. Yu, Y. Park, and K. Oh, Opt. Express 10, 996 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  14. T. Pennington, A. Wang, and H. Xiao, Opt. Express 6, 196 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. Pine, Phys. Rev. 185, 1187 (1969).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

J. Hair, L. Caldwell, D. Krueger, and C. She, Appl. Opt. 40, 5280 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Miles, W. Lempert, and J. Forkey, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, R33 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

R. Miles, A. Yalin, Z. Tange, S. Zaidi, and J. Forkey, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 442 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Pennington, A. Wang, and H. Xiao, Opt. Express 6, 196 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

S. Yokoyama, T. Yokoyama, T. Araki, T. Hayashi, and N. Suzuki, Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 1252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

1972 (1)

P. Schoen and D. Jackson, J. Phys. E 5, 519 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

A. Pine, Phys. Rev. 185, 1187 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Araki, T.

S. Yokoyama, T. Yokoyama, T. Araki, T. Hayashi, and N. Suzuki, Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 1252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Arie, A.

Byer, R.

Caldwell, L.

Eloranta, E.

P. Pirronen and E. Eloranta, Opt. Lett. 19, 234 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. Eloranta, in Lidar: Range Resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, C.Weitkamp, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 2005), pp. 143-164.

Forkey, J.

R. Miles, W. Lempert, and J. Forkey, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, R33 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Miles, A. Yalin, Z. Tange, S. Zaidi, and J. Forkey, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 442 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Forkey, "Development and demonstration of filtered Rayleigh scattering--a laser based flow diagnostic for planar measurement of velocity, temperature, and pressure," Ph.D. dissertation (Princeton University, 1996).

Gerstenkorn, S.

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, Atlas du spectre d'absorption de la molecule d'iode (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1978).

Gustafson, E.

Hair, J.

Hayashi, T.

S. Yokoyama, T. Yokoyama, T. Araki, T. Hayashi, and N. Suzuki, Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 1252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, D.

P. Schoen and D. Jackson, J. Phys. E 5, 519 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Krueger, D.

Lempert, W.

R. Miles, W. Lempert, and J. Forkey, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, R33 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Luc, P.

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, Atlas du spectre d'absorption de la molecule d'iode (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1978).

Miles, R.

R. Miles, W. Lempert, and J. Forkey, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, R33 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Miles, A. Yalin, Z. Tange, S. Zaidi, and J. Forkey, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 442 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Oh, K.

Park, Y.

Pennington, T.

Pine, A.

A. Pine, Phys. Rev. 185, 1187 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Pirronen, P.

P. Pirronen and E. Eloranta, Opt. Lett. 19, 234 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Pirronen, "A high spectral resolution lidar based on an iodine absorption filter," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Joensuu, 1994).

Schiller, S.

Schoen, P.

P. Schoen and D. Jackson, J. Phys. E 5, 519 (1972).
[CrossRef]

She, C.

Suzuki, N.

S. Yokoyama, T. Yokoyama, T. Araki, T. Hayashi, and N. Suzuki, Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 1252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tange, Z.

R. Miles, A. Yalin, Z. Tange, S. Zaidi, and J. Forkey, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 442 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, A.

Xiao, H.

Yalin, A.

R. Miles, A. Yalin, Z. Tange, S. Zaidi, and J. Forkey, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 442 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, S.

S. Yokoyama, T. Yokoyama, T. Araki, T. Hayashi, and N. Suzuki, Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 1252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, T.

S. Yokoyama, T. Yokoyama, T. Araki, T. Hayashi, and N. Suzuki, Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 1252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

Zaidi, S.

R. Miles, A. Yalin, Z. Tange, S. Zaidi, and J. Forkey, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 442 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Phys. E (1)

P. Schoen and D. Jackson, J. Phys. E 5, 519 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (3)

S. Yokoyama, T. Yokoyama, T. Araki, T. Hayashi, and N. Suzuki, Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 1252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Miles, W. Lempert, and J. Forkey, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, R33 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Miles, A. Yalin, Z. Tange, S. Zaidi, and J. Forkey, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 442 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. (1)

A. Pine, Phys. Rev. 185, 1187 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

P. Pirronen, "A high spectral resolution lidar based on an iodine absorption filter," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Joensuu, 1994).

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, Atlas du spectre d'absorption de la molecule d'iode (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1978).

J. Forkey, "Development and demonstration of filtered Rayleigh scattering--a laser based flow diagnostic for planar measurement of velocity, temperature, and pressure," Ph.D. dissertation (Princeton University, 1996).

E. Eloranta, in Lidar: Range Resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, C.Weitkamp, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 2005), pp. 143-164.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

I 2 spectrum[1] plotted as a function of frequency offset from the center of line 1109 for a 5 cm cell held at 26 ° C . Vertical lines mark the center of line 1109 and the frequency offset due to Brillouin scattering computed for a pure silica fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the frequency-locking system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the fiber-optic pinhole interferometer used to provide short-term laser frequency measurements.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reference cell transmission of Brillouin-shifted light by line 1105 as a function of the laser frequency offset from the center of line 1109. Frequency measurements are derived from the interferometer. The I 2 lock-point transmission is shown along with the slope of the transmission curve at the lock point.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Frequency deviations of the transmitted laser pulses ( 2.5 s averages) for a 5.5 h period.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Voltage feedback signal supplied to the seed laser to maintain lock for the period shown in Fig. 5. The right-side scale converts voltages into frequencies, using the nominal tuning rate of the seed laser.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) Histogram of frequency deviations from the 100 s mean measured by the interferometer.

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