Abstract

We describe a high-contrast imaging technique capable of directly measuring light from a terrestrial planet by using a vortex mask of topological charge m=5. We demonstrate that this technique is relatively insensitive to low-order aberrations and compare its performance to that of a band-limited Lyot coronagraph.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. B. Lyot, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 99, 578 (1939).
  2. N. J. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, D. N. Spergel, and M. G. Littman, Astrophys. J. 582, 1147 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. R. P. Angel, Nature 368, 203 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. O. Guyon, Astron. Astrophys. 404, 379 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. J. Kuchner, and W. A. Traub, Astrophys. J. 570, 900 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. T. Trauger, C. Burrows, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, A. E. Lowman, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, and D. Wilson, in Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Rouan, P. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Clenet, and A. Labeyrie, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 1479 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Foo, D. M. Palacios, and G. A. Swartzlander, Jr., Opt. Lett. 30, 3308 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M.Vasnetsov and K.Staliunas, eds., Optical Vortices, Vol. 228 of Horizons in World Physics (Nova Science, 1999).
  10. F. B. Colstoun, G. Khitrova, A. V. Fedorov, T. R. Nelson, C. Lowery, T. M. Brennan, B. G. Hammons, and P. D. Maker, Chaos, Solitons Fractals 4, 1575 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. A. Swartzlander, Jr., Opt. Lett. 26, 497 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Palacios, D. Rozas, and G. A. Swartzlander Jr., Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 103902 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. J. Green and S. B. Shaklan, in Proc. SPIE 5170, 25 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. We have derived Eq. by evaluating Eq. (12) of Ref. over a set of field points, chin=1, for each field point in the final image plane.
  15. Z. S. Sacks, D. Rozas, and G. A. Swartzlander, Jr., J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2226 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. J. Kuchner, J. Crepp, and J. Ge, APJ 628, 466 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. B. Shaklan and J. J. Green, APJ 628, 474 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. D. Gaskill, Linear Systems, Fourier Transforms, and Optics (Wiley, 1978).
  19. R. J. Noll, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 207 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  20. G. A. Swartzlander, Jr., Opt. Lett. 30, 2876 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

2004 (1)

J. T. Trauger, C. Burrows, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, A. E. Lowman, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, and D. Wilson, in Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

N. J. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, D. N. Spergel, and M. G. Littman, Astrophys. J. 582, 1147 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. Guyon, Astron. Astrophys. 404, 379 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Green and S. B. Shaklan, in Proc. SPIE 5170, 25 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

M. J. Kuchner, and W. A. Traub, Astrophys. J. 570, 900 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Palacios, D. Rozas, and G. A. Swartzlander Jr., Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 103902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

D. Rouan, P. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Clenet, and A. Labeyrie, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 1479 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1995 (1)

F. B. Colstoun, G. Khitrova, A. V. Fedorov, T. R. Nelson, C. Lowery, T. M. Brennan, B. G. Hammons, and P. D. Maker, Chaos, Solitons Fractals 4, 1575 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. R. P. Angel, Nature 368, 203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

1939 (1)

M. B. Lyot, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 99, 578 (1939).

Angel, J. R. P.

J. R. P. Angel, Nature 368, 203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Boccaletti, A.

D. Rouan, P. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Clenet, and A. Labeyrie, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 1479 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brennan, T. M.

F. B. Colstoun, G. Khitrova, A. V. Fedorov, T. R. Nelson, C. Lowery, T. M. Brennan, B. G. Hammons, and P. D. Maker, Chaos, Solitons Fractals 4, 1575 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, C.

J. T. Trauger, C. Burrows, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, A. E. Lowman, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, and D. Wilson, in Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Clenet, Y.

D. Rouan, P. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Clenet, and A. Labeyrie, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 1479 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Colstoun, F. B.

F. B. Colstoun, G. Khitrova, A. V. Fedorov, T. R. Nelson, C. Lowery, T. M. Brennan, B. G. Hammons, and P. D. Maker, Chaos, Solitons Fractals 4, 1575 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Crepp, J.

M. J. Kuchner, J. Crepp, and J. Ge, APJ 628, 466 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fedorov, A. V.

F. B. Colstoun, G. Khitrova, A. V. Fedorov, T. R. Nelson, C. Lowery, T. M. Brennan, B. G. Hammons, and P. D. Maker, Chaos, Solitons Fractals 4, 1575 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Foo, G.

Gaskill, J. D.

J. D. Gaskill, Linear Systems, Fourier Transforms, and Optics (Wiley, 1978).

Ge, J.

M. J. Kuchner, J. Crepp, and J. Ge, APJ 628, 466 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, B.

J. T. Trauger, C. Burrows, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, A. E. Lowman, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, and D. Wilson, in Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Green, J. J.

S. B. Shaklan and J. J. Green, APJ 628, 474 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Trauger, C. Burrows, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, A. E. Lowman, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, and D. Wilson, in Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Green and S. B. Shaklan, in Proc. SPIE 5170, 25 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Guyon, O.

O. Guyon, Astron. Astrophys. 404, 379 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hammons, B. G.

F. B. Colstoun, G. Khitrova, A. V. Fedorov, T. R. Nelson, C. Lowery, T. M. Brennan, B. G. Hammons, and P. D. Maker, Chaos, Solitons Fractals 4, 1575 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kasdin, N. J.

N. J. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, D. N. Spergel, and M. G. Littman, Astrophys. J. 582, 1147 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Khitrova, G.

F. B. Colstoun, G. Khitrova, A. V. Fedorov, T. R. Nelson, C. Lowery, T. M. Brennan, B. G. Hammons, and P. D. Maker, Chaos, Solitons Fractals 4, 1575 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kuchner, M. J.

M. J. Kuchner, J. Crepp, and J. Ge, APJ 628, 466 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Kuchner, and W. A. Traub, Astrophys. J. 570, 900 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Labeyrie, A.

D. Rouan, P. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Clenet, and A. Labeyrie, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 1479 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Littman, M. G.

N. J. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, D. N. Spergel, and M. G. Littman, Astrophys. J. 582, 1147 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lowery, C.

F. B. Colstoun, G. Khitrova, A. V. Fedorov, T. R. Nelson, C. Lowery, T. M. Brennan, B. G. Hammons, and P. D. Maker, Chaos, Solitons Fractals 4, 1575 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lowman, A. E.

J. T. Trauger, C. Burrows, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, A. E. Lowman, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, and D. Wilson, in Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lyot, M. B.

M. B. Lyot, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 99, 578 (1939).

Maker, P. D.

F. B. Colstoun, G. Khitrova, A. V. Fedorov, T. R. Nelson, C. Lowery, T. M. Brennan, B. G. Hammons, and P. D. Maker, Chaos, Solitons Fractals 4, 1575 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Moody, D.

J. T. Trauger, C. Burrows, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, A. E. Lowman, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, and D. Wilson, in Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, T. R.

F. B. Colstoun, G. Khitrova, A. V. Fedorov, T. R. Nelson, C. Lowery, T. M. Brennan, B. G. Hammons, and P. D. Maker, Chaos, Solitons Fractals 4, 1575 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Niessner, A. F.

J. T. Trauger, C. Burrows, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, A. E. Lowman, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, and D. Wilson, in Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Noll, R. J.

Palacios, D.

D. Palacios, D. Rozas, and G. A. Swartzlander Jr., Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 103902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palacios, D. M.

Riaud, P.

D. Rouan, P. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Clenet, and A. Labeyrie, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 1479 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rouan, D.

D. Rouan, P. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Clenet, and A. Labeyrie, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 1479 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rozas, D.

D. Palacios, D. Rozas, and G. A. Swartzlander Jr., Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 103902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. S. Sacks, D. Rozas, and G. A. Swartzlander, Jr., J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2226 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sacks, Z. S.

Shaklan, S. B.

S. B. Shaklan and J. J. Green, APJ 628, 474 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Green and S. B. Shaklan, in Proc. SPIE 5170, 25 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shi, F.

J. T. Trauger, C. Burrows, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, A. E. Lowman, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, and D. Wilson, in Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Spergel, D. N.

N. J. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, D. N. Spergel, and M. G. Littman, Astrophys. J. 582, 1147 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Swartzlander, G. A.

Traub, W. A.

M. J. Kuchner, and W. A. Traub, Astrophys. J. 570, 900 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Trauger, J. T.

J. T. Trauger, C. Burrows, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, A. E. Lowman, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, and D. Wilson, in Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vanderbei, R. J.

N. J. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, D. N. Spergel, and M. G. Littman, Astrophys. J. 582, 1147 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, D.

J. T. Trauger, C. Burrows, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, A. E. Lowman, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, and D. Wilson, in Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

APJ (2)

M. J. Kuchner, J. Crepp, and J. Ge, APJ 628, 466 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Shaklan and J. J. Green, APJ 628, 474 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Astrophys. (1)

O. Guyon, Astron. Astrophys. 404, 379 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. (2)

M. J. Kuchner, and W. A. Traub, Astrophys. J. 570, 900 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Kasdin, R. J. Vanderbei, D. N. Spergel, and M. G. Littman, Astrophys. J. 582, 1147 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chaos, Solitons Fractals (1)

F. B. Colstoun, G. Khitrova, A. V. Fedorov, T. R. Nelson, C. Lowery, T. M. Brennan, B. G. Hammons, and P. D. Maker, Chaos, Solitons Fractals 4, 1575 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (1)

M. B. Lyot, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 99, 578 (1939).

Nature (1)

J. R. P. Angel, Nature 368, 203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. Palacios, D. Rozas, and G. A. Swartzlander Jr., Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 103902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (2)

J. J. Green and S. B. Shaklan, in Proc. SPIE 5170, 25 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Trauger, C. Burrows, B. Gordon, J. J. Green, A. E. Lowman, D. Moody, A. F. Niessner, F. Shi, and D. Wilson, in Proc. SPIE 5487, 1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. (1)

D. Rouan, P. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Clenet, and A. Labeyrie, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 1479 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

M.Vasnetsov and K.Staliunas, eds., Optical Vortices, Vol. 228 of Horizons in World Physics (Nova Science, 1999).

We have derived Eq. by evaluating Eq. (12) of Ref. over a set of field points, chin=1, for each field point in the final image plane.

J. D. Gaskill, Linear Systems, Fourier Transforms, and Optics (Wiley, 1978).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simple unfolded model of an optical vortex coronagraph. Lens ( L 1 ) represents the telescope optics, which focus the light from the entrance pupil onto an m = 5 optical vortex mask (OVM). The inset depicts the OVM phase profile. Lens ( L 2 ) collimates the light forming an exit pupil where we place a Lyot stop. A third lens ( L 3 ) reimages the light to the final focal plane at (FP).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Plots of contrast versus aberration size (waves peak to valley) depicting the aberration sensitivity of an m = 5 vortex coronagraph to various Noll ordered Zernike polynomials ( z ) . This is evaluated as the average contrast at a 4 λ D annulus around a star.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of Aberration Sensitivities to z a

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E ( ρ , ϕ , z , t ) = A ( ρ , z ) exp ( i m ϕ ) exp ( i ω t i k z ) ,
C ¯ ρ 0 = ( 1 A R ) 0 2 π I ( ρ 0 , ϕ ) { I open ( ρ 0 , ϕ ) o ( ρ 0 , ϕ ) 2 } d ϕ ,
E ( r , θ ) = P ( r ) [ 1 + l = 1 , 2 , 3 i l l ! Φ ( r , θ ) ] .
M ( ρ ) = tanh m ( ρ w v ) ,
M ( ρ ) k = 1 , 2 , 3 a k ρ k , a k = ( 1 w v k ! ) [ k ρ k M ( ρ = 0 ) ] .
P exit ( r , θ ) = E ( r , θ ) k = m , m + 1 , m + 2 a k H m { ρ k } exp ( i m θ ) ,
P exit ( r , θ ) = P ( r ) ( 1 + l = 1 , 2 , 3 i l l ! Φ l ( r , θ ) ) k = m , m + 1 , m + 2 a k ( 1 2 π ) k r m k d k d r k [ 1 r m k δ ( r ) ] exp ( i m θ ) .

Metrics