Abstract

We demonstrate time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) by using a frequency-tunable femtosecond soliton output of a silica photonic-crystal fiber (PCF) as a Stokes field. This approach allows quantum beats originating from two close Raman modes to be resolved in the time-domain CARS response. The nonresonant CARS background is efficiently suppressed by introducing a delay time between the probe pulse and the pump–Stokes pulse dyad, suggesting a convenient fiber-optic format for the Stokes source in time–resolved CARS and allowing sensitivity improvement in PCF-based CARS spectroscopes and microscopes.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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2005

2004

S. O. Konorov, D. A. Akimov, E. E. Serebryannikov, A. A. Ivanov, M. V. Alfimov, and A. M. Zheltikov, Phys. Rev. E 70, 057601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, Nature 424, 511 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. St. J. Russell, Science 299, 358 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. Paulsen, K. M. Hilligsøe, J. Thøgersen, S. R. Keiding, and J. J. Larsen, Opt. Lett. 28, 1123 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

D. Oron, N. Dudovich, D. Yelin, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rev. A 65, 043408 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, Nature 418, 512 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

1999

A. M. Zheltikov and N. I. Koroteev, Phys. Usp. 42, 321 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995

N. Akhmediev and M. Karlsson, Phys. Rev. A 51, 2602 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

R. Leonhardt, W. Holzapfel, W. Zinth, and W. Kaiser, Chem. Phys. Lett. 133, 373 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2001).

Akhmediev, N.

N. Akhmediev and M. Karlsson, Phys. Rev. A 51, 2602 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akimov, D. A.

S. O. Konorov, D. A. Akimov, E. E. Serebryannikov, A. A. Ivanov, M. V. Alfimov, and A. M. Zheltikov, Phys. Rev. E 70, 057601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Alfimov, M. V.

S. O. Konorov, D. A. Akimov, E. E. Serebryannikov, A. A. Ivanov, M. V. Alfimov, and A. M. Zheltikov, Phys. Rev. E 70, 057601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Andresen, E. R.

Biancalana, F.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, Nature 424, 511 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birkedal, V.

Côté, D.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 16807 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dudovich, N.

D. Oron, N. Dudovich, D. Yelin, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rev. A 65, 043408 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, Nature 418, 512 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eckbreth, A. C.

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species (Abacus, 1988).

Eesley, G. L.

G. L. Eesley, Coherent Raman Spectroscopy (Pergamon, 1981).

Efimov, A.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, Nature 424, 511 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, C. L.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 16807 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Griebner, U.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamaguchi, H.

Herrmann, J.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hilligsøe, K. M.

Holtom, G. R.

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Holzapfel, W.

R. Leonhardt, W. Holzapfel, W. Zinth, and W. Kaiser, Chem. Phys. Lett. 133, 373 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Husakou, A.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ivanov, A. A.

S. O. Konorov, D. A. Akimov, E. E. Serebryannikov, A. A. Ivanov, M. V. Alfimov, and A. M. Zheltikov, Phys. Rev. E 70, 057601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, W.

R. Leonhardt, W. Holzapfel, W. Zinth, and W. Kaiser, Chem. Phys. Lett. 133, 373 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kano, H.

Karlsson, M.

N. Akhmediev and M. Karlsson, Phys. Rev. A 51, 2602 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keiding, S. R.

Knight, J. C.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, Nature 424, 511 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Konorov, S. O.

S. O. Konorov, D. A. Akimov, E. E. Serebryannikov, A. A. Ivanov, M. V. Alfimov, and A. M. Zheltikov, Phys. Rev. E 70, 057601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Korn, G.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koroteev, N. I.

A. M. Zheltikov and N. I. Koroteev, Phys. Usp. 42, 321 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Larsen, J. J.

Leonhardt, R.

R. Leonhardt, W. Holzapfel, W. Zinth, and W. Kaiser, Chem. Phys. Lett. 133, 373 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. P.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 16807 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nickel, D.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Omenetto, F. G.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, Nature 424, 511 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oron, D.

D. Oron, N. Dudovich, D. Yelin, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rev. A 65, 043408 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, Nature 418, 512 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulsen, H. N.

Potma, E. O.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 16807 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puoris'haag, M.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 16807 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ranka, J. K.

Reeves, W. H.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, Nature 424, 511 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, P. St. J.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, Nature 424, 511 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. St. J. Russell, Science 299, 358 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serebryannikov, E. E.

S. O. Konorov, D. A. Akimov, E. E. Serebryannikov, A. A. Ivanov, M. V. Alfimov, and A. M. Zheltikov, Phys. Rev. E 70, 057601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Silberberg, Y.

D. Oron, N. Dudovich, D. Yelin, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rev. A 65, 043408 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, Nature 418, 512 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skryabin, D. V.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, Nature 424, 511 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stentz, A. J.

Taylor, A. J.

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, Nature 424, 511 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thøgersen, J.

Wadsworth, W. J.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Windeler, R. S.

Xie, X. S.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 16807 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yelin, D.

D. Oron, N. Dudovich, D. Yelin, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rev. A 65, 043408 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhavoronkov, N.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheltikov, A. M.

S. O. Konorov, D. A. Akimov, E. E. Serebryannikov, A. A. Ivanov, M. V. Alfimov, and A. M. Zheltikov, Phys. Rev. E 70, 057601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Zheltikov and N. I. Koroteev, Phys. Usp. 42, 321 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zinth, W.

R. Leonhardt, W. Holzapfel, W. Zinth, and W. Kaiser, Chem. Phys. Lett. 133, 373 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Zumbusch, A.

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

R. Leonhardt, W. Holzapfel, W. Zinth, and W. Kaiser, Chem. Phys. Lett. 133, 373 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nature

W. H. Reeves, D. V. Skryabin, F. Biancalana, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, and A. J. Taylor, Nature 424, 511 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, Nature 418, 512 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

D. Oron, N. Dudovich, D. Yelin, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rev. A 65, 043408 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Akhmediev and M. Karlsson, Phys. Rev. A 51, 2602 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E

S. O. Konorov, D. A. Akimov, E. E. Serebryannikov, A. A. Ivanov, M. V. Alfimov, and A. M. Zheltikov, Phys. Rev. E 70, 057601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Usp.

A. M. Zheltikov and N. I. Koroteev, Phys. Usp. 42, 321 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 16807 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

P. St. J. Russell, Science 299, 358 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

W.Kiefer, ed., Femtosecond Coherent Raman Spectroscopy, special issue of J. Raman Spectrosc. 31(1-2) (2000).

G. L. Eesley, Coherent Raman Spectroscopy (Pergamon, 1981).

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species (Abacus, 1988).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2001).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

1, effective mode area, and 2, the group-velocity dispersion of the photonic-crystal fiber with a core diameter of 1.8 μ m and the cross-section structure shown in the inset.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Radiation spectra at the output of the PCF measured for different peak powers of input 35 fs Ti:sapphire laser pulses; from top to bottom: 1, 2.5, 4, 5, and 6 kW . Fiber length is 12 cm . The inset shows the soliton wavelength shift measured (rectangles, diamonds, and asterisks) and calculated (solid curves 1–3) as a function of the pulse-propagation distance in the PCF for different peak powers of input 35 fs Ti:sapphire laser pulses: 1, rectangles, 3 kW ; 2, diamonds, 7 kW ; and 3, asterisks, 11 kW .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Filled circles) CARS signal measured as a function of the delay time between the probe pulse and the pump–Stokes pulse dyad. (Open circles) Cross correlation of the redshifted PCF output and a 50 fs Ti:sapphire laser pulse measured through sum-frequency generation in a BBO crystal. The spectrum of the redshifted PCF output reflected off a diffraction grating is shown in the inset.

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