Abstract

We describe a novel technique for stabilizing frequency shifts in laser-interrogated vapor-cell atomic clocks. The method suppresses frequency shifts due to changes in the laser frequency, intensity, and modulation index as well as atomic vapor density. The clock operating parameters are monitored by using the atoms themselves, rather than by using conventional schemes for laser frequency and cell temperature control. The experiment is realized using a chip-scale atomic clock. The novel atomic-based stabilization approach results in a simpler setup and improved long-term performance.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Arimondo, Prog. Opt. 35, 257 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Vanier, Appl. Phys. B 81, 421 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Knappe, L. Liew, V. Shah., P. D. D. Schwindt, J. Moreland, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Lutwak, J. Deng, W. Riley, M. Varghese, J. Leblanc, G. Tepolt, M. Mescher, D. K. Serkland, K. M. Geib, and G. M. Peake, in Proceedings of the Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting (36th) (U.S. Naval Observatory, 2004) (CD-ROM).
  5. M. Zhu and L. Cutler, in Proceedings of the Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting (32nd) (U.S. Naval Observatory, 2000) (CD-ROM), pp. 311-324.
  6. L. A. Liew, S. Knappe, J. Moreland, H. Robinson, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2694 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Okoshi and K. Kikuchi, Electron. Lett. 16, 179 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. Happer, Rev. Mod. Phys. 44, 169 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Vanier and C. Audoin, The Quantum Physics of Atomic Frequency Standards, 1st ed. (Adam Hilger, 1989).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Yamaguchi and M. Suzuki, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1514 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. E. Janssen and M. W. Levine, U.S. Patent 6,222,424 (April 24, 2001).
  12. A. S. Brannon, J. Breitbarth, and Z. Popovic, in 2005 IEEE MTT-S Symposium Digest (IEEE, 2005), p. 1535.
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Vanier, A. Godone, and F. Levi, in Proceedings of the 1999 Joint Meeting of the European Frequency and Time Forum, 1999 and the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium, 1999 (IEEE, 1999) pp. 96-99.
  14. M. Zhu and S. Cutler, U.S. Patent 6,201,821 (March 13, 2001).
  15. C. Affolderbach, C. Andreeva, S. Cartaleva, T. Karaulanov, G. Mileti, and D. Slavov, Appl. Phys. B 80, 841 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (3)

J. Vanier, Appl. Phys. B 81, 421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Brannon, J. Breitbarth, and Z. Popovic, in 2005 IEEE MTT-S Symposium Digest (IEEE, 2005), p. 1535.
[CrossRef]

C. Affolderbach, C. Andreeva, S. Cartaleva, T. Karaulanov, G. Mileti, and D. Slavov, Appl. Phys. B 80, 841 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

S. Knappe, L. Liew, V. Shah., P. D. D. Schwindt, J. Moreland, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Lutwak, J. Deng, W. Riley, M. Varghese, J. Leblanc, G. Tepolt, M. Mescher, D. K. Serkland, K. M. Geib, and G. M. Peake, in Proceedings of the Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting (36th) (U.S. Naval Observatory, 2004) (CD-ROM).

L. A. Liew, S. Knappe, J. Moreland, H. Robinson, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2694 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

M. Zhu and S. Cutler, U.S. Patent 6,201,821 (March 13, 2001).

D. E. Janssen and M. W. Levine, U.S. Patent 6,222,424 (April 24, 2001).

2000 (1)

M. Zhu and L. Cutler, in Proceedings of the Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting (32nd) (U.S. Naval Observatory, 2000) (CD-ROM), pp. 311-324.

1999 (1)

J. Vanier, A. Godone, and F. Levi, in Proceedings of the 1999 Joint Meeting of the European Frequency and Time Forum, 1999 and the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium, 1999 (IEEE, 1999) pp. 96-99.

1996 (1)

E. Arimondo, Prog. Opt. 35, 257 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

J. Vanier and C. Audoin, The Quantum Physics of Atomic Frequency Standards, 1st ed. (Adam Hilger, 1989).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

S. Yamaguchi and M. Suzuki, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1514 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

T. Okoshi and K. Kikuchi, Electron. Lett. 16, 179 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

W. Happer, Rev. Mod. Phys. 44, 169 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Affolderbach, C.

C. Affolderbach, C. Andreeva, S. Cartaleva, T. Karaulanov, G. Mileti, and D. Slavov, Appl. Phys. B 80, 841 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Andreeva, C.

C. Affolderbach, C. Andreeva, S. Cartaleva, T. Karaulanov, G. Mileti, and D. Slavov, Appl. Phys. B 80, 841 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Arimondo, E.

E. Arimondo, Prog. Opt. 35, 257 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Audoin, C.

J. Vanier and C. Audoin, The Quantum Physics of Atomic Frequency Standards, 1st ed. (Adam Hilger, 1989).
[CrossRef]

Brannon, A. S.

A. S. Brannon, J. Breitbarth, and Z. Popovic, in 2005 IEEE MTT-S Symposium Digest (IEEE, 2005), p. 1535.
[CrossRef]

Breitbarth, J.

A. S. Brannon, J. Breitbarth, and Z. Popovic, in 2005 IEEE MTT-S Symposium Digest (IEEE, 2005), p. 1535.
[CrossRef]

Cartaleva, S.

C. Affolderbach, C. Andreeva, S. Cartaleva, T. Karaulanov, G. Mileti, and D. Slavov, Appl. Phys. B 80, 841 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cutler, L.

M. Zhu and L. Cutler, in Proceedings of the Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting (32nd) (U.S. Naval Observatory, 2000) (CD-ROM), pp. 311-324.

Cutler, S.

M. Zhu and S. Cutler, U.S. Patent 6,201,821 (March 13, 2001).

Deng, J.

R. Lutwak, J. Deng, W. Riley, M. Varghese, J. Leblanc, G. Tepolt, M. Mescher, D. K. Serkland, K. M. Geib, and G. M. Peake, in Proceedings of the Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting (36th) (U.S. Naval Observatory, 2004) (CD-ROM).

Geib, K. M.

R. Lutwak, J. Deng, W. Riley, M. Varghese, J. Leblanc, G. Tepolt, M. Mescher, D. K. Serkland, K. M. Geib, and G. M. Peake, in Proceedings of the Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting (36th) (U.S. Naval Observatory, 2004) (CD-ROM).

Godone, A.

J. Vanier, A. Godone, and F. Levi, in Proceedings of the 1999 Joint Meeting of the European Frequency and Time Forum, 1999 and the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium, 1999 (IEEE, 1999) pp. 96-99.

Happer, W.

W. Happer, Rev. Mod. Phys. 44, 169 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

L. A. Liew, S. Knappe, J. Moreland, H. Robinson, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2694 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Knappe, L. Liew, V. Shah., P. D. D. Schwindt, J. Moreland, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Janssen, D. E.

D. E. Janssen and M. W. Levine, U.S. Patent 6,222,424 (April 24, 2001).

Karaulanov, T.

C. Affolderbach, C. Andreeva, S. Cartaleva, T. Karaulanov, G. Mileti, and D. Slavov, Appl. Phys. B 80, 841 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, K.

T. Okoshi and K. Kikuchi, Electron. Lett. 16, 179 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kitching, J.

S. Knappe, L. Liew, V. Shah., P. D. D. Schwindt, J. Moreland, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Liew, S. Knappe, J. Moreland, H. Robinson, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2694 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Knappe, S.

L. A. Liew, S. Knappe, J. Moreland, H. Robinson, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2694 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Knappe, L. Liew, V. Shah., P. D. D. Schwindt, J. Moreland, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leblanc, J.

R. Lutwak, J. Deng, W. Riley, M. Varghese, J. Leblanc, G. Tepolt, M. Mescher, D. K. Serkland, K. M. Geib, and G. M. Peake, in Proceedings of the Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting (36th) (U.S. Naval Observatory, 2004) (CD-ROM).

Levi, F.

J. Vanier, A. Godone, and F. Levi, in Proceedings of the 1999 Joint Meeting of the European Frequency and Time Forum, 1999 and the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium, 1999 (IEEE, 1999) pp. 96-99.

Levine, M. W.

D. E. Janssen and M. W. Levine, U.S. Patent 6,222,424 (April 24, 2001).

Liew, L.

S. Knappe, L. Liew, V. Shah., P. D. D. Schwindt, J. Moreland, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liew, L. A.

L. A. Liew, S. Knappe, J. Moreland, H. Robinson, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2694 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lutwak, R.

R. Lutwak, J. Deng, W. Riley, M. Varghese, J. Leblanc, G. Tepolt, M. Mescher, D. K. Serkland, K. M. Geib, and G. M. Peake, in Proceedings of the Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting (36th) (U.S. Naval Observatory, 2004) (CD-ROM).

Mescher, M.

R. Lutwak, J. Deng, W. Riley, M. Varghese, J. Leblanc, G. Tepolt, M. Mescher, D. K. Serkland, K. M. Geib, and G. M. Peake, in Proceedings of the Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting (36th) (U.S. Naval Observatory, 2004) (CD-ROM).

Mileti, G.

C. Affolderbach, C. Andreeva, S. Cartaleva, T. Karaulanov, G. Mileti, and D. Slavov, Appl. Phys. B 80, 841 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moreland, J.

L. A. Liew, S. Knappe, J. Moreland, H. Robinson, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2694 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Knappe, L. Liew, V. Shah., P. D. D. Schwindt, J. Moreland, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Okoshi, T.

T. Okoshi and K. Kikuchi, Electron. Lett. 16, 179 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Peake, G. M.

R. Lutwak, J. Deng, W. Riley, M. Varghese, J. Leblanc, G. Tepolt, M. Mescher, D. K. Serkland, K. M. Geib, and G. M. Peake, in Proceedings of the Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting (36th) (U.S. Naval Observatory, 2004) (CD-ROM).

Popovic, Z.

A. S. Brannon, J. Breitbarth, and Z. Popovic, in 2005 IEEE MTT-S Symposium Digest (IEEE, 2005), p. 1535.
[CrossRef]

Riley, W.

R. Lutwak, J. Deng, W. Riley, M. Varghese, J. Leblanc, G. Tepolt, M. Mescher, D. K. Serkland, K. M. Geib, and G. M. Peake, in Proceedings of the Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting (36th) (U.S. Naval Observatory, 2004) (CD-ROM).

Robinson, H.

L. A. Liew, S. Knappe, J. Moreland, H. Robinson, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2694 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schwindt, P. D. D.

S. Knappe, L. Liew, V. Shah., P. D. D. Schwindt, J. Moreland, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Serkland, D. K.

R. Lutwak, J. Deng, W. Riley, M. Varghese, J. Leblanc, G. Tepolt, M. Mescher, D. K. Serkland, K. M. Geib, and G. M. Peake, in Proceedings of the Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting (36th) (U.S. Naval Observatory, 2004) (CD-ROM).

Shah., V.

S. Knappe, L. Liew, V. Shah., P. D. D. Schwindt, J. Moreland, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Slavov, D.

C. Affolderbach, C. Andreeva, S. Cartaleva, T. Karaulanov, G. Mileti, and D. Slavov, Appl. Phys. B 80, 841 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, M.

S. Yamaguchi and M. Suzuki, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1514 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Tepolt, G.

R. Lutwak, J. Deng, W. Riley, M. Varghese, J. Leblanc, G. Tepolt, M. Mescher, D. K. Serkland, K. M. Geib, and G. M. Peake, in Proceedings of the Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting (36th) (U.S. Naval Observatory, 2004) (CD-ROM).

Vanier, J.

J. Vanier, Appl. Phys. B 81, 421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Vanier, A. Godone, and F. Levi, in Proceedings of the 1999 Joint Meeting of the European Frequency and Time Forum, 1999 and the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium, 1999 (IEEE, 1999) pp. 96-99.

J. Vanier and C. Audoin, The Quantum Physics of Atomic Frequency Standards, 1st ed. (Adam Hilger, 1989).
[CrossRef]

Varghese, M.

R. Lutwak, J. Deng, W. Riley, M. Varghese, J. Leblanc, G. Tepolt, M. Mescher, D. K. Serkland, K. M. Geib, and G. M. Peake, in Proceedings of the Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting (36th) (U.S. Naval Observatory, 2004) (CD-ROM).

Yamaguchi, S.

S. Yamaguchi and M. Suzuki, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1514 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, M.

M. Zhu and S. Cutler, U.S. Patent 6,201,821 (March 13, 2001).

M. Zhu and L. Cutler, in Proceedings of the Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting (32nd) (U.S. Naval Observatory, 2000) (CD-ROM), pp. 311-324.

Appl. Phys. B (2)

J. Vanier, Appl. Phys. B 81, 421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Affolderbach, C. Andreeva, S. Cartaleva, T. Karaulanov, G. Mileti, and D. Slavov, Appl. Phys. B 80, 841 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. Knappe, L. Liew, V. Shah., P. D. D. Schwindt, J. Moreland, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Liew, S. Knappe, J. Moreland, H. Robinson, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2694 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Okoshi and K. Kikuchi, Electron. Lett. 16, 179 (1980).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Yamaguchi and M. Suzuki, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1514 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Opt. (1)

E. Arimondo, Prog. Opt. 35, 257 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

W. Happer, Rev. Mod. Phys. 44, 169 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

J. Vanier and C. Audoin, The Quantum Physics of Atomic Frequency Standards, 1st ed. (Adam Hilger, 1989).
[CrossRef]

R. Lutwak, J. Deng, W. Riley, M. Varghese, J. Leblanc, G. Tepolt, M. Mescher, D. K. Serkland, K. M. Geib, and G. M. Peake, in Proceedings of the Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting (36th) (U.S. Naval Observatory, 2004) (CD-ROM).

M. Zhu and L. Cutler, in Proceedings of the Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting (32nd) (U.S. Naval Observatory, 2000) (CD-ROM), pp. 311-324.

D. E. Janssen and M. W. Levine, U.S. Patent 6,222,424 (April 24, 2001).

A. S. Brannon, J. Breitbarth, and Z. Popovic, in 2005 IEEE MTT-S Symposium Digest (IEEE, 2005), p. 1535.
[CrossRef]

J. Vanier, A. Godone, and F. Levi, in Proceedings of the 1999 Joint Meeting of the European Frequency and Time Forum, 1999 and the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium, 1999 (IEEE, 1999) pp. 96-99.

M. Zhu and S. Cutler, U.S. Patent 6,201,821 (March 13, 2001).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a)–(d) Experimental setup for chip-scale atomic clock parameter control. Therm, thermistor; Temp., temperature control; Current, current control; PD, photodiode; VCSEL, vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser, solid lines, dc signals; dashed lines, phase detection signals. (a) Conventional setup. (b) Laser frequency is controlled by temperature feedback. (c) In addition to (b), cell temperature is controlled by atomic absorption. (d) In addition to (c), laser intensity is controlled by use of a photodetector. (e) Fractional frequency instability plots, corresponding to configurations (a)–(d).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photodetector output (dashed curve, left axis) and error signal (solid curve, right axis) as a function of RF power coupled to the laser. (a) Laser temperature stabilized using atomic absorption. (b) Laser temperature stabilized using a thermistor. The synthesizer was AM modulated at 1 kHz with 3% depth. The time constant of the lock-in amplifier was 10 ms and its sensitivity 1 mV .

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