Abstract

We propose and demonstrate a novel liquid deformable mirror, based on electrocapillary actuation, for high-order wavefront correction. The device consists of a two-dimensional array of vertically oriented microchannels filled with two immiscible liquids, an aqueous electrolyte, and a viscous dielectric liquid, where the dielectric liquid overfills the top end of the channel and forms a thin layer on top. To remedy the poor reflectivity of pure liquids, a free-floating reflective membrane or a dye-coated liquid can be used. The proposed device offers several advantages for adaptive optics applications. These advantages include a high number of actuators, high stroke dynamic range, low power dissipation, fast response time, an initially flat surface, and low cost. However, the device is mainly suitable for dynamic wavefront correction and is limited by its orientation.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. K. Tyson, Principles of Adaptive Optics (Academic, 1999).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Ragazzoni and E. Marchetti, Astron. Astrophys. 283, L17 (1994).
  7. P. R. Laird, R. Bergamasco, V. Berube, E. F. Borra, J. Gingras, A. Ritcey, M. Rioux, N. Robitaille, S. Thibault, L. V. da Silva, Jr., and H. Yockell-Lelievre, in Proc. SPIE 4839, 733 (2003).
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  8. M. W. J. Prins, W. J. J. Welters, and J. W. Weekamp, Science 291, 277 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. W. J. J. Welters and L. G. J. Fokkink, Langmuir 14, 1535 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Pellat, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris , 119, 691 (1895).
  11. L. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Fluid Mechanics (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2003).
  12. E. M. Vuelban, N. Bhattacharya, and J. J. M. Braat, in Proc. SPIE 5894, 162 (2005).
  13. M. W. J. Prins, Health Care Devices and Instrumentation, Philips Research, Eindhoven, The Netherlands (personal communication, 2005).

2005

E. M. Vuelban, N. Bhattacharya, and J. J. M. Braat, in Proc. SPIE 5894, 162 (2005).

2004

E. F. Borra, A. M. Ritcey, R. Bergamasco, P. Laird, J. Gingras, M. Dallaire, L. Da Silva, and H. Yockell-Lelievre, Astron. Astrophys. 419, 777 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

P. R. Laird, R. Bergamasco, V. Berube, E. F. Borra, J. Gingras, A. Ritcey, M. Rioux, N. Robitaille, S. Thibault, L. V. da Silva, Jr., and H. Yockell-Lelievre, in Proc. SPIE 4839, 733 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. W. J. Prins, W. J. J. Welters, and J. W. Weekamp, Science 291, 277 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

W. J. J. Welters and L. G. J. Fokkink, Langmuir 14, 1535 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994

R. Ragazzoni and E. Marchetti, Astron. Astrophys. 283, L17 (1994).

1990

M. A. Ealey, Opt. Eng. 29, 1191 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1979

1977

1895

H. Pellat, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris , 119, 691 (1895).

Bergamasco, R.

E. F. Borra, A. M. Ritcey, R. Bergamasco, P. Laird, J. Gingras, M. Dallaire, L. Da Silva, and H. Yockell-Lelievre, Astron. Astrophys. 419, 777 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Laird, R. Bergamasco, V. Berube, E. F. Borra, J. Gingras, A. Ritcey, M. Rioux, N. Robitaille, S. Thibault, L. V. da Silva, Jr., and H. Yockell-Lelievre, in Proc. SPIE 4839, 733 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Berube, V.

P. R. Laird, R. Bergamasco, V. Berube, E. F. Borra, J. Gingras, A. Ritcey, M. Rioux, N. Robitaille, S. Thibault, L. V. da Silva, Jr., and H. Yockell-Lelievre, in Proc. SPIE 4839, 733 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharya, N.

E. M. Vuelban, N. Bhattacharya, and J. J. M. Braat, in Proc. SPIE 5894, 162 (2005).

Borra, E. F.

E. F. Borra, A. M. Ritcey, R. Bergamasco, P. Laird, J. Gingras, M. Dallaire, L. Da Silva, and H. Yockell-Lelievre, Astron. Astrophys. 419, 777 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Laird, R. Bergamasco, V. Berube, E. F. Borra, J. Gingras, A. Ritcey, M. Rioux, N. Robitaille, S. Thibault, L. V. da Silva, Jr., and H. Yockell-Lelievre, in Proc. SPIE 4839, 733 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Braat, J. J. M.

E. M. Vuelban, N. Bhattacharya, and J. J. M. Braat, in Proc. SPIE 5894, 162 (2005).

Da Silva, L.

E. F. Borra, A. M. Ritcey, R. Bergamasco, P. Laird, J. Gingras, M. Dallaire, L. Da Silva, and H. Yockell-Lelievre, Astron. Astrophys. 419, 777 (2004).
[CrossRef]

da Silva, L. V.

P. R. Laird, R. Bergamasco, V. Berube, E. F. Borra, J. Gingras, A. Ritcey, M. Rioux, N. Robitaille, S. Thibault, L. V. da Silva, Jr., and H. Yockell-Lelievre, in Proc. SPIE 4839, 733 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dallaire, M.

E. F. Borra, A. M. Ritcey, R. Bergamasco, P. Laird, J. Gingras, M. Dallaire, L. Da Silva, and H. Yockell-Lelievre, Astron. Astrophys. 419, 777 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ealey, M. A.

M. A. Ealey, Opt. Eng. 29, 1191 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fokkink, L. G. J.

W. J. J. Welters and L. G. J. Fokkink, Langmuir 14, 1535 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gingras, J.

E. F. Borra, A. M. Ritcey, R. Bergamasco, P. Laird, J. Gingras, M. Dallaire, L. Da Silva, and H. Yockell-Lelievre, Astron. Astrophys. 419, 777 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Laird, R. Bergamasco, V. Berube, E. F. Borra, J. Gingras, A. Ritcey, M. Rioux, N. Robitaille, S. Thibault, L. V. da Silva, Jr., and H. Yockell-Lelievre, in Proc. SPIE 4839, 733 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grosso, R. P.

Laird, P.

E. F. Borra, A. M. Ritcey, R. Bergamasco, P. Laird, J. Gingras, M. Dallaire, L. Da Silva, and H. Yockell-Lelievre, Astron. Astrophys. 419, 777 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laird, P. R.

P. R. Laird, R. Bergamasco, V. Berube, E. F. Borra, J. Gingras, A. Ritcey, M. Rioux, N. Robitaille, S. Thibault, L. V. da Silva, Jr., and H. Yockell-Lelievre, in Proc. SPIE 4839, 733 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Landau, L.

L. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Fluid Mechanics (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2003).

Lifshitz, E. M.

L. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Fluid Mechanics (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2003).

Lipson, S. G.

Marchetti, E.

R. Ragazzoni and E. Marchetti, Astron. Astrophys. 283, L17 (1994).

Pellat, H.

H. Pellat, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris , 119, 691 (1895).

Prins, M. W. J.

M. W. J. Prins, W. J. J. Welters, and J. W. Weekamp, Science 291, 277 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. J. Prins, Health Care Devices and Instrumentation, Philips Research, Eindhoven, The Netherlands (personal communication, 2005).

Ragazzoni, R.

R. Ragazzoni and E. Marchetti, Astron. Astrophys. 283, L17 (1994).

Rioux, M.

P. R. Laird, R. Bergamasco, V. Berube, E. F. Borra, J. Gingras, A. Ritcey, M. Rioux, N. Robitaille, S. Thibault, L. V. da Silva, Jr., and H. Yockell-Lelievre, in Proc. SPIE 4839, 733 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ritcey, A.

P. R. Laird, R. Bergamasco, V. Berube, E. F. Borra, J. Gingras, A. Ritcey, M. Rioux, N. Robitaille, S. Thibault, L. V. da Silva, Jr., and H. Yockell-Lelievre, in Proc. SPIE 4839, 733 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ritcey, A. M.

E. F. Borra, A. M. Ritcey, R. Bergamasco, P. Laird, J. Gingras, M. Dallaire, L. Da Silva, and H. Yockell-Lelievre, Astron. Astrophys. 419, 777 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Robitaille, N.

P. R. Laird, R. Bergamasco, V. Berube, E. F. Borra, J. Gingras, A. Ritcey, M. Rioux, N. Robitaille, S. Thibault, L. V. da Silva, Jr., and H. Yockell-Lelievre, in Proc. SPIE 4839, 733 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Steinhaus, E.

Thibault, S.

P. R. Laird, R. Bergamasco, V. Berube, E. F. Borra, J. Gingras, A. Ritcey, M. Rioux, N. Robitaille, S. Thibault, L. V. da Silva, Jr., and H. Yockell-Lelievre, in Proc. SPIE 4839, 733 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tyson, R. K.

R. K. Tyson, Principles of Adaptive Optics (Academic, 1999).

Vuelban, E. M.

E. M. Vuelban, N. Bhattacharya, and J. J. M. Braat, in Proc. SPIE 5894, 162 (2005).

Weekamp, J. W.

M. W. J. Prins, W. J. J. Welters, and J. W. Weekamp, Science 291, 277 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welters, W. J. J.

M. W. J. Prins, W. J. J. Welters, and J. W. Weekamp, Science 291, 277 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. J. Welters and L. G. J. Fokkink, Langmuir 14, 1535 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yellin, M.

Yockell-Lelievre, H.

E. F. Borra, A. M. Ritcey, R. Bergamasco, P. Laird, J. Gingras, M. Dallaire, L. Da Silva, and H. Yockell-Lelievre, Astron. Astrophys. 419, 777 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Laird, R. Bergamasco, V. Berube, E. F. Borra, J. Gingras, A. Ritcey, M. Rioux, N. Robitaille, S. Thibault, L. V. da Silva, Jr., and H. Yockell-Lelievre, in Proc. SPIE 4839, 733 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Astrophys.

E. F. Borra, A. M. Ritcey, R. Bergamasco, P. Laird, J. Gingras, M. Dallaire, L. Da Silva, and H. Yockell-Lelievre, Astron. Astrophys. 419, 777 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni and E. Marchetti, Astron. Astrophys. 283, L17 (1994).

C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris

H. Pellat, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris , 119, 691 (1895).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Langmuir

W. J. J. Welters and L. G. J. Fokkink, Langmuir 14, 1535 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

M. A. Ealey, Opt. Eng. 29, 1191 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

E. M. Vuelban, N. Bhattacharya, and J. J. M. Braat, in Proc. SPIE 5894, 162 (2005).

P. R. Laird, R. Bergamasco, V. Berube, E. F. Borra, J. Gingras, A. Ritcey, M. Rioux, N. Robitaille, S. Thibault, L. V. da Silva, Jr., and H. Yockell-Lelievre, in Proc. SPIE 4839, 733 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science

M. W. J. Prins, W. J. J. Welters, and J. W. Weekamp, Science 291, 277 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

M. W. J. Prins, Health Care Devices and Instrumentation, Philips Research, Eindhoven, The Netherlands (personal communication, 2005).

R. K. Tyson, Principles of Adaptive Optics (Academic, 1999).

L. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Fluid Mechanics (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2003).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Design concept of an electrocapillary actuated LDM: (a) mirror configuration, (b) single-channel profile.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Test device with an array of 64 × 64 microchannels.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Response time measurement: (a) applied pulse with amplitude of 196 V and duration of 100 ms , (b) rise time of the liquid surface, (c) enlarged plot of the boxed region.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Interferometric measurement of the surface shape: (a) interferogram, (b) reconstructed shape of the surface.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ P = ( 2 d ) ( ϵ 0 ϵ r τ ) V 2 ,
f = ( σ k 3 ρ ) 2 π ,
α = ( 2 η k 2 ρ ) .
H ( x , y ) = ϕ ( x , y ) λ 2 π [ cos ( θ 1 + θ 2 ) ] ,

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