Abstract

High-resolution soft x-ray differential interference contrast (DIC) imaging was demonstrated through the use of a single-element objective, the XOR pattern, in a full-field soft x-ray microscope. DIC images of the magnetic domains in a 59nm thick amorphous Gd25Fe75 layer were obtained and magnetic phase contributions were directly imaged. With its elemental, chemical, and magnetic specificity, compatibility with various sample environments, and ease of implementation, we expect this soft x-ray DIC technique to become one of the standard modes of operation for existing full-field soft x-ray microscopes.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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W. L. Chao, B. Harteneck, J. Liddle, E. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Vogt, M. Lindblom, P. Jansson, T. Tuohimaa, A. Holmberg, H. Hertz, M. Wieland, and T. Wilhein, Opt. Lett. 30, 2167 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. Neiman, and D. Sayre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Allwood, G. Xiong, C. Faulkner, D. Atkinson, D. Petit, and R. Cowburn, Science 309, 1688 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

C. Larabell and M. Le Gros, Mol. Biol. Cell 15, 957 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Eisebitt, J. Lüning, W. Schlotter, M. Lorgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stöhr, Nature 432, 885 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

2002 (4)

G. Schneider, E. Anderson, S. Vogt, C. Knochel, D. Weiss, M. Legros, and C. Larabell, Surf. Rev. Lett. 9, 177 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Chang, E. Anderson, P. Naulleau, E. Gullikson, K. Goldberg, and D. Attwood, Opt. Lett. 27, 1028 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Fischer, G. Denbeaux, T. Ono, T. Okuno, T. Eimüller, D. Goll, and G. Schütz, J. Phys. D 35, 2391 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Schneider, G. Denbeaux, E. Anderson, B. Bates, A. Pearson, M. Meyer, E. Zschech, D. Hambach, and E. Stach, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2535 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

T. Wilhein, B. Kaulich, E. Di Fabrizio, F. Romanato, S. Cabrini, and J. Susini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2082 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

E. H. Anderson, D. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, and D. Attwood, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Kortright and S. Kim, Phys. Rev. B 62, 12216 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. W. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, Nature 400, 342 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

D. Paganin and K. A. Nugent, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2586 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

P. Fischer, G. Schütz, G. Schmahl, P. Guttmann, and D. Raasch, Z. Phys. B: Condens. Matter 101, 313 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, and B. Niemann, Optik (Stuttgart) 97, 181 (1994).

1993 (1)

J. Stöhr, Y. Wu, B. Hermsmeier, M. Samant, G. Harp, S. Koranda, D. Dunham, and B. Tonner, Science 259, 658 (1993).

1992 (3)

C. J. Cogswell and C. J. R. Sheppard, J. Microsc. 165, 81 (1992).
[CrossRef]

I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. Anderson, M. Howells, and D. Kern, Science 256, 1009 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ade, X. Zhang, S. Cameron, C. Costello, J. Kirz, and S. Williams, Science 258, 972 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

C. T. Chen, F. Sette, Y. Ma, and S. Modesti, Phys. Rev. B 42, 7262 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1955 (1)

G. Nomarski, J. Phys. Radium 16, 9S (1955).

1942 (1)

F. Zernike, Physica (The Hague) 9, 686 (1942).
[CrossRef]

Ade, H.

H. Ade, X. Zhang, S. Cameron, C. Costello, J. Kirz, and S. Williams, Science 258, 972 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allwood, D. A.

D. A. Allwood, G. Xiong, C. Faulkner, D. Atkinson, D. Petit, and R. Cowburn, Science 309, 1688 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, E.

W. L. Chao, B. Harteneck, J. Liddle, E. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Chang, E. Anderson, P. Naulleau, E. Gullikson, K. Goldberg, and D. Attwood, Opt. Lett. 27, 1028 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Schneider, E. Anderson, S. Vogt, C. Knochel, D. Weiss, M. Legros, and C. Larabell, Surf. Rev. Lett. 9, 177 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Schneider, G. Denbeaux, E. Anderson, B. Bates, A. Pearson, M. Meyer, E. Zschech, D. Hambach, and E. Stach, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2535 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. Anderson, M. Howells, and D. Kern, Science 256, 1009 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, E. H.

E. H. Anderson, D. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, and D. Attwood, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Atkinson, D.

D. A. Allwood, G. Xiong, C. Faulkner, D. Atkinson, D. Petit, and R. Cowburn, Science 309, 1688 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Attwood, D.

C. Chang, E. Anderson, P. Naulleau, E. Gullikson, K. Goldberg, and D. Attwood, Opt. Lett. 27, 1028 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Anderson, D. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, and D. Attwood, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D. T.

W. L. Chao, B. Harteneck, J. Liddle, E. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).

Barty, A.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, 'High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

Bates, B.

G. Schneider, G. Denbeaux, E. Anderson, B. Bates, A. Pearson, M. Meyer, E. Zschech, D. Hambach, and E. Stach, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2535 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beetz, T.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. Neiman, and D. Sayre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, 'High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

Cabrini, S.

E. Di Fabrizio, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, B. Kaulich, J. Susini, P. Facci, and T. Wilhein, Opt. Express 11, 2278 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wilhein, B. Kaulich, E. Di Fabrizio, F. Romanato, S. Cabrini, and J. Susini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2082 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cameron, S.

H. Ade, X. Zhang, S. Cameron, C. Costello, J. Kirz, and S. Williams, Science 258, 972 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, C.

Chao, W.

E. H. Anderson, D. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, and D. Attwood, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chao, W. L.

W. L. Chao, B. Harteneck, J. Liddle, E. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chapman, H. N.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, 'High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

Charalambous, P.

J. W. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, Nature 400, 342 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. T.

C. T. Chen, F. Sette, Y. Ma, and S. Modesti, Phys. Rev. B 42, 7262 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cogswell, C. J.

C. J. Cogswell and C. J. R. Sheppard, J. Microsc. 165, 81 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cojoc, D.

Costello, C.

H. Ade, X. Zhang, S. Cameron, C. Costello, J. Kirz, and S. Williams, Science 258, 972 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cowburn, R.

D. A. Allwood, G. Xiong, C. Faulkner, D. Atkinson, D. Petit, and R. Cowburn, Science 309, 1688 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cui, C.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, 'High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

Denbeaux, G.

P. Fischer, T. Emüller, G. Schütz, and G. Denbeaux, Struct. Chem. 14, 39 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Schneider, G. Denbeaux, E. Anderson, B. Bates, A. Pearson, M. Meyer, E. Zschech, D. Hambach, and E. Stach, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2535 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Fischer, G. Denbeaux, T. Ono, T. Okuno, T. Eimüller, D. Goll, and G. Schütz, J. Phys. D 35, 2391 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Anderson, D. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, and D. Attwood, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Di Fabrizio, E.

E. Di Fabrizio, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, B. Kaulich, J. Susini, P. Facci, and T. Wilhein, Opt. Express 11, 2278 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wilhein, B. Kaulich, E. Di Fabrizio, F. Romanato, S. Cabrini, and J. Susini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2082 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dunham, D.

J. Stöhr, Y. Wu, B. Hermsmeier, M. Samant, G. Harp, S. Koranda, D. Dunham, and B. Tonner, Science 259, 658 (1993).

Eberhardt, W.

S. Eisebitt, J. Lüning, W. Schlotter, M. Lorgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stöhr, Nature 432, 885 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eimüller, T.

P. Fischer, G. Denbeaux, T. Ono, T. Okuno, T. Eimüller, D. Goll, and G. Schütz, J. Phys. D 35, 2391 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eisebitt, S.

S. Eisebitt, J. Lüning, W. Schlotter, M. Lorgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stöhr, Nature 432, 885 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elser, V.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. Neiman, and D. Sayre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emüller, T.

P. Fischer, T. Emüller, G. Schütz, and G. Denbeaux, Struct. Chem. 14, 39 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Facci, P.

Faulkner, C.

D. A. Allwood, G. Xiong, C. Faulkner, D. Atkinson, D. Petit, and R. Cowburn, Science 309, 1688 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, P.

P. Fischer, T. Emüller, G. Schütz, and G. Denbeaux, Struct. Chem. 14, 39 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Fischer, G. Denbeaux, T. Ono, T. Okuno, T. Eimüller, D. Goll, and G. Schütz, J. Phys. D 35, 2391 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Fischer, G. Schütz, G. Schmahl, P. Guttmann, and D. Raasch, Z. Phys. B: Condens. Matter 101, 313 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, K.

Goll, D.

P. Fischer, G. Denbeaux, T. Ono, T. Okuno, T. Eimüller, D. Goll, and G. Schütz, J. Phys. D 35, 2391 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E.

Guttmann, P.

P. Fischer, G. Schütz, G. Schmahl, P. Guttmann, and D. Raasch, Z. Phys. B: Condens. Matter 101, 313 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, and B. Niemann, Optik (Stuttgart) 97, 181 (1994).

Hambach, D.

G. Schneider, G. Denbeaux, E. Anderson, B. Bates, A. Pearson, M. Meyer, E. Zschech, D. Hambach, and E. Stach, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2535 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Harp, G.

J. Stöhr, Y. Wu, B. Hermsmeier, M. Samant, G. Harp, S. Koranda, D. Dunham, and B. Tonner, Science 259, 658 (1993).

Harteneck, B.

W. L. Chao, B. Harteneck, J. Liddle, E. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. H. Anderson, D. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, and D. Attwood, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hau-Riege, S. P.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, 'High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

He, H.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, 'High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

Hellwig, O.

S. Eisebitt, J. Lüning, W. Schlotter, M. Lorgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stöhr, Nature 432, 885 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermsmeier, B.

J. Stöhr, Y. Wu, B. Hermsmeier, M. Samant, G. Harp, S. Koranda, D. Dunham, and B. Tonner, Science 259, 658 (1993).

Hertz, H.

Holmberg, A.

Howells, M.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. Neiman, and D. Sayre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. Anderson, M. Howells, and D. Kern, Science 256, 1009 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Howells, M. R.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, 'High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

Jacobsen, C.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. Neiman, and D. Sayre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. Anderson, M. Howells, and D. Kern, Science 256, 1009 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, 'High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

Jansson, P.

Johnson, L.

E. H. Anderson, D. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, and D. Attwood, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kaulich, B.

E. Di Fabrizio, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, B. Kaulich, J. Susini, P. Facci, and T. Wilhein, Opt. Express 11, 2278 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wilhein, B. Kaulich, E. Di Fabrizio, F. Romanato, S. Cabrini, and J. Susini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2082 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kern, D.

I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. Anderson, M. Howells, and D. Kern, Science 256, 1009 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S.

J. Kortright and S. Kim, Phys. Rev. B 62, 12216 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kirz, J.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. Neiman, and D. Sayre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, Nature 400, 342 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. Anderson, M. Howells, and D. Kern, Science 256, 1009 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ade, X. Zhang, S. Cameron, C. Costello, J. Kirz, and S. Williams, Science 258, 972 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knochel, C.

G. Schneider, E. Anderson, S. Vogt, C. Knochel, D. Weiss, M. Legros, and C. Larabell, Surf. Rev. Lett. 9, 177 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Koranda, S.

J. Stöhr, Y. Wu, B. Hermsmeier, M. Samant, G. Harp, S. Koranda, D. Dunham, and B. Tonner, Science 259, 658 (1993).

Kortright, J.

J. Kortright and S. Kim, Phys. Rev. B 62, 12216 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Larabell, C.

C. Larabell and M. Le Gros, Mol. Biol. Cell 15, 957 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Schneider, E. Anderson, S. Vogt, C. Knochel, D. Weiss, M. Legros, and C. Larabell, Surf. Rev. Lett. 9, 177 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Le Gros, M.

C. Larabell and M. Le Gros, Mol. Biol. Cell 15, 957 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Legros, M.

G. Schneider, E. Anderson, S. Vogt, C. Knochel, D. Weiss, M. Legros, and C. Larabell, Surf. Rev. Lett. 9, 177 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liddle, J.

W. L. Chao, B. Harteneck, J. Liddle, E. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lima, E.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. Neiman, and D. Sayre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindblom, M.

Lorgen, M.

S. Eisebitt, J. Lüning, W. Schlotter, M. Lorgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stöhr, Nature 432, 885 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lucero, A.

E. H. Anderson, D. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, and D. Attwood, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lüning, J.

S. Eisebitt, J. Lüning, W. Schlotter, M. Lorgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stöhr, Nature 432, 885 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, Y.

C. T. Chen, F. Sette, Y. Ma, and S. Modesti, Phys. Rev. B 42, 7262 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Malacara, D.

D. Malacara, Optical Shop Testing (Wiley, 1992).

Marchesini, S.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, 'High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

McNulty, I.

I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. Anderson, M. Howells, and D. Kern, Science 256, 1009 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyer, M.

G. Schneider, G. Denbeaux, E. Anderson, B. Bates, A. Pearson, M. Meyer, E. Zschech, D. Hambach, and E. Stach, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2535 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Miao, H.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. Neiman, and D. Sayre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miao, J. W.

J. W. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, Nature 400, 342 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Modesti, S.

C. T. Chen, F. Sette, Y. Ma, and S. Modesti, Phys. Rev. B 42, 7262 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Naulleau, P.

Neiman, A.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. Neiman, and D. Sayre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niemann, B.

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, and B. Niemann, Optik (Stuttgart) 97, 181 (1994).

Nomarski, G.

G. Nomarski, J. Phys. Radium 16, 9S (1955).

Noy, A.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, 'High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

Nugent, K. A.

D. Paganin and K. A. Nugent, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2586 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Okuno, T.

P. Fischer, G. Denbeaux, T. Ono, T. Okuno, T. Eimüller, D. Goll, and G. Schütz, J. Phys. D 35, 2391 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Olynick, D.

E. H. Anderson, D. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, and D. Attwood, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ono, T.

P. Fischer, G. Denbeaux, T. Ono, T. Okuno, T. Eimüller, D. Goll, and G. Schütz, J. Phys. D 35, 2391 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Paganin, D.

D. Paganin and K. A. Nugent, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2586 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, A.

G. Schneider, G. Denbeaux, E. Anderson, B. Bates, A. Pearson, M. Meyer, E. Zschech, D. Hambach, and E. Stach, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2535 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Petit, D.

D. A. Allwood, G. Xiong, C. Faulkner, D. Atkinson, D. Petit, and R. Cowburn, Science 309, 1688 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raasch, D.

P. Fischer, G. Schütz, G. Schmahl, P. Guttmann, and D. Raasch, Z. Phys. B: Condens. Matter 101, 313 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Romanato, F.

T. Wilhein, B. Kaulich, E. Di Fabrizio, F. Romanato, S. Cabrini, and J. Susini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2082 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rosen, R.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, 'High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

Rudolph, D.

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, and B. Niemann, Optik (Stuttgart) 97, 181 (1994).

Samant, M.

J. Stöhr, Y. Wu, B. Hermsmeier, M. Samant, G. Harp, S. Koranda, D. Dunham, and B. Tonner, Science 259, 658 (1993).

Sayre, D.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. Neiman, and D. Sayre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, Nature 400, 342 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schlotter, W.

S. Eisebitt, J. Lüning, W. Schlotter, M. Lorgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stöhr, Nature 432, 885 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmahl, G.

P. Fischer, G. Schütz, G. Schmahl, P. Guttmann, and D. Raasch, Z. Phys. B: Condens. Matter 101, 313 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, and B. Niemann, Optik (Stuttgart) 97, 181 (1994).

Schneider, G.

G. Schneider, G. Denbeaux, E. Anderson, B. Bates, A. Pearson, M. Meyer, E. Zschech, D. Hambach, and E. Stach, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2535 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Schneider, E. Anderson, S. Vogt, C. Knochel, D. Weiss, M. Legros, and C. Larabell, Surf. Rev. Lett. 9, 177 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, and B. Niemann, Optik (Stuttgart) 97, 181 (1994).

Schütz, G.

P. Fischer, T. Emüller, G. Schütz, and G. Denbeaux, Struct. Chem. 14, 39 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Fischer, G. Denbeaux, T. Ono, T. Okuno, T. Eimüller, D. Goll, and G. Schütz, J. Phys. D 35, 2391 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Fischer, G. Schütz, G. Schmahl, P. Guttmann, and D. Raasch, Z. Phys. B: Condens. Matter 101, 313 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sette, F.

C. T. Chen, F. Sette, Y. Ma, and S. Modesti, Phys. Rev. B 42, 7262 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, D.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. Neiman, and D. Sayre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, 'High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

Sheppard, C. J. R.

C. J. Cogswell and C. J. R. Sheppard, J. Microsc. 165, 81 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Spence, J. C. H.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, 'High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

Stach, E.

G. Schneider, G. Denbeaux, E. Anderson, B. Bates, A. Pearson, M. Meyer, E. Zschech, D. Hambach, and E. Stach, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2535 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stöhr, J.

S. Eisebitt, J. Lüning, W. Schlotter, M. Lorgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stöhr, Nature 432, 885 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Stöhr, Y. Wu, B. Hermsmeier, M. Samant, G. Harp, S. Koranda, D. Dunham, and B. Tonner, Science 259, 658 (1993).

Susini, J.

E. Di Fabrizio, D. Cojoc, S. Cabrini, B. Kaulich, J. Susini, P. Facci, and T. Wilhein, Opt. Express 11, 2278 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wilhein, B. Kaulich, E. Di Fabrizio, F. Romanato, S. Cabrini, and J. Susini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2082 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thibault, P.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. Neiman, and D. Sayre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tonner, B.

J. Stöhr, Y. Wu, B. Hermsmeier, M. Samant, G. Harp, S. Koranda, D. Dunham, and B. Tonner, Science 259, 658 (1993).

Tuohimaa, T.

Veklerov, E.

E. H. Anderson, D. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, and D. Attwood, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vogt, S.

G. Schneider, E. Anderson, S. Vogt, C. Knochel, D. Weiss, M. Legros, and C. Larabell, Surf. Rev. Lett. 9, 177 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vogt, U.

Weierstall, U.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, 'High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

Weiss, D.

G. Schneider, E. Anderson, S. Vogt, C. Knochel, D. Weiss, M. Legros, and C. Larabell, Surf. Rev. Lett. 9, 177 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wieland, M.

Wilhein, T.

Williams, S.

H. Ade, X. Zhang, S. Cameron, C. Costello, J. Kirz, and S. Williams, Science 258, 972 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

J. Stöhr, Y. Wu, B. Hermsmeier, M. Samant, G. Harp, S. Koranda, D. Dunham, and B. Tonner, Science 259, 658 (1993).

Xiong, G.

D. A. Allwood, G. Xiong, C. Faulkner, D. Atkinson, D. Petit, and R. Cowburn, Science 309, 1688 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zernike, F.

F. Zernike, Physica (The Hague) 9, 686 (1942).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

H. Ade, X. Zhang, S. Cameron, C. Costello, J. Kirz, and S. Williams, Science 258, 972 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zschech, E.

G. Schneider, G. Denbeaux, E. Anderson, B. Bates, A. Pearson, M. Meyer, E. Zschech, D. Hambach, and E. Stach, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2535 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

T. Wilhein, B. Kaulich, E. Di Fabrizio, F. Romanato, S. Cabrini, and J. Susini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2082 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Schneider, G. Denbeaux, E. Anderson, B. Bates, A. Pearson, M. Meyer, E. Zschech, D. Hambach, and E. Stach, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2535 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

C. J. Cogswell and C. J. R. Sheppard, J. Microsc. 165, 81 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

P. Fischer, G. Denbeaux, T. Ono, T. Okuno, T. Eimüller, D. Goll, and G. Schütz, J. Phys. D 35, 2391 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Radium (1)

G. Nomarski, J. Phys. Radium 16, 9S (1955).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

E. H. Anderson, D. Olynick, B. Harteneck, E. Veklerov, G. Denbeaux, W. Chao, A. Lucero, L. Johnson, and D. Attwood, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2970 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Biol. Cell (1)

C. Larabell and M. Le Gros, Mol. Biol. Cell 15, 957 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

S. Eisebitt, J. Lüning, W. Schlotter, M. Lorgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt, and J. Stöhr, Nature 432, 885 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, Nature 400, 342 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Chao, B. Harteneck, J. Liddle, E. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optik (Stuttgart) (1)

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, G. Schneider, P. Guttmann, and B. Niemann, Optik (Stuttgart) 97, 181 (1994).

Phys. Rev. B (2)

C. T. Chen, F. Sette, Y. Ma, and S. Modesti, Phys. Rev. B 42, 7262 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Kortright and S. Kim, Phys. Rev. B 62, 12216 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. Paganin and K. A. Nugent, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2586 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Physica (The Hague) (1)

F. Zernike, Physica (The Hague) 9, 686 (1942).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. Neiman, and D. Sayre, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (4)

I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. Anderson, M. Howells, and D. Kern, Science 256, 1009 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ade, X. Zhang, S. Cameron, C. Costello, J. Kirz, and S. Williams, Science 258, 972 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Stöhr, Y. Wu, B. Hermsmeier, M. Samant, G. Harp, S. Koranda, D. Dunham, and B. Tonner, Science 259, 658 (1993).

D. A. Allwood, G. Xiong, C. Faulkner, D. Atkinson, D. Petit, and R. Cowburn, Science 309, 1688 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Struct. Chem. (1)

P. Fischer, T. Emüller, G. Schütz, and G. Denbeaux, Struct. Chem. 14, 39 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Rev. Lett. (1)

G. Schneider, E. Anderson, S. Vogt, C. Knochel, D. Weiss, M. Legros, and C. Larabell, Surf. Rev. Lett. 9, 177 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. B: Condens. Matter (1)

P. Fischer, G. Schütz, G. Schmahl, P. Guttmann, and D. Raasch, Z. Phys. B: Condens. Matter 101, 313 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

J.Susini, D.Joyeux, and F.Polack, eds., X-Ray Microscopy VII (EDP Sciences, Paris, 2003).

D. T. Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells, R. Rosen, H. He, J. C. H. Spence, U. Weierstall, T. Beetz, C. Jacobsen, and D. Shapiro, 'High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

D. Malacara, Optical Shop Testing (Wiley, 1992).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

XOR objective. Bias retardation is accomplished by lateral shifting of the grating with respect to the zone plate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for soft x-ray DIC microscopy. The scanning-electron microscope photograph (inset) shows the XOR pattern with a 1 μ m scale bar.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

DIC images of a 59 nm thick Gd 25 Fe 75 sample obtained across the iron L 3 and L 2 edges at (a) 705 and (b) 711 eV .

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ x = 2 sin 1 ( λ d ) f 2 Δ r D d ,
Δ ϕ = 2 π ( Δ a d ) ,

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