Three-dimensional photonic waveguide devices are fabricated in glass by use of femtosecond pulses from an extended-cavity laser oscillator. Three-dimensional devices, including a symmetric three-waveguide directional coupler and a three-dimensional microring resonator, are fabricated and tested. Waveguides can be fabricated at depths of inside a glass substrate, thus demonstrating the capability of achieving dramatic increases in device density. These results demonstrate the potential to fabricate new classes of devices that are not possible in two dimensions.
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